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Sinbulsa Temple – 신불사 (Ulju-gun, Ulsan)

The Very Rare Samshin-gak Hall at Sinbulsa Temple in Ulju-gun, Ulsan.

Temple Layout

Sinbulsa Temple is located in western Ulsan in Ulju-gun to the east of Mt. Yeongchuksan (1082.2 m). In fact, the famed Tongdosa Temple isn’t all that far away to the south, as well. When you first arrive at the temple grounds, after having wandered around the outskirts of the Samsung factory, you’ll first be greeted by a stone sign that says the temple’s name in Korean: 신불사. Down at the fork in the road, head right towards the temple grounds.

Straight ahead of you, and to the right, is the temple’s Jong-ru (Bell Pavilion). The Jong-ru houses a rather large Brahma Bell, especially when you consider that the temple is rather small in size. Adorning the beautiful bell are large Bicheon (Flying Heavenly Deities). Walking past the Jong-ru, you’ll be greeted by the Daeung-jeon Hall to your left. And straight ahead of you are the monks dorms.

The exterior walls to the Daeung-jeon Hall are rather plainly adorned. In fact, the four paintings that adorn the Daeung-jeon Hall are rather rudimentary in composition. However, stepping inside the Daeung-jeon Hall, you’ll be welcomed by a beautiful shrine hall filled with colour. Taking up residence on the main altar, and placed in the centre, is a statue dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). To the immediate right and left of this central image are statues dedicated to Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power) and Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom). Joining this triad on the main altar are statues dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) and Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). And next to Amita-bul is Daesaeji-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Power for Amita-bul). And left of this set of altar statues is a shrine dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). And next to this more traditional image of Jijang-bosal is another image of Jijang-bosal. This statue, however, is a bit more peculiar. This statue of Jijang-bosal is seated atop a golden elephant and backed by a set of paintings of the Siwang (The Ten Kings of the Underworld). And on the far right wall of the Daeung-jeon Hall is another statue of Gwanseeum-bosal, as well as a beautiful Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural).

Next to the Daeung-jeon Hall is the Yongwang-dang Hall. Inside this shaman shrine hall, you’ll find a seated golden statue dedicated to Yongwang (The Dragon King) with a beautiful mural of Yongwang behind the statue of the Dragon King. This mural has Yongwang to the left and a blue dragon to the right. Just in front of the golden statue of Yongwang is an open pool where the mountain water collects. And to the immediate left of the main altar are rows of green statues dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul. Next to the Yongwang-dang Hall is an outdoor shrine dedicated to Dokseong (The Lonely Saint). Again, this shrine is large and golden. And much like the images of Yongwang, there is a statue and mural dedicated to Dokseong that are both beautifully rendered.

Across the stream, and over the bridge, is another courtyard with a large statue dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal. There are two beautiful flanking seokdeung (stone lanterns) and a tiny stone statue of Gwanseeum-bosal to the right of the courtyard. It’s rather plain and cluttered, but the design of the stone statues are beautiful.

Now heading back through the temple grounds, and back to where you first started at the entry of Sinbulsa Temple, you should now see some shrine halls to your left. This part of the temple, and the row of temple shrine halls, is definitely the highlight to the temple. To the right of the shrine halls is an interesting little display case that opens. Inside is housed a painting dedicated to Samshin Halmoni (Three Spirits Grandmother). Samshin Halmoni, according to myth, protects every child from birth until they are seven years old. Then Chilseong (The Seven Stars) takes care of the child. So Samshin Halmoni is known as being the deity of childbirth and fate. It’s also exceedingly rare to find this deity at a Korean Buddhist temple.

Back at the row of temple shrine halls, you’ll find one of these shrine halls dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit). Housed inside the Sanshin-gak Hall is a nice statue and painting dedicated to Sanshin. Rather fittingly, you’ll find a large boulder to the right of the main altar inside this shaman shrine hall. To the left of the Sanshin-gak Hall is another oddity. Inside this temple shrine hall, you’ll find a unique painting dedicated, once more, to Samshin Halmoni, who is joined by Dangsan Cheonwang. And inside the third, and final shrine hall, you’ll find older looking murals of guardians.

How To Get There

Sinbulsa Temple is definitely one of the more difficult temples to get to. First, you’ll need to take a bus from the Yangsan Health Centre (near the Yangsan Intercity Bus Terminal), then you an take either Bus #63 or #67. The bus ride will then let you off near the SDI (Samsung Development Institute) factory. This bus ride will take about an hour. From where the bus lets you off, you’ll need to walk. Take the first left that heads towards the main entrance of the factory. The road will then fork to the left just before you arrive at the SDI entrance gate. Follow this road, as it twists and turns for a good two to three kilometres. But don’t worry, there is good signage along the way to help guide you the entire way to Sinbulsa Temple. On your way, you’ll pass by a forested area, as well as a few smaller factories to the rear of the SDI factory.

Overall Rating: 6.5/10

Sinbulsa Temple in western Ulsan is one of the more original temples that you’ll find in Korea with a definite influence of Korean shamanism made apparent by the numerous shrine halls dedicated to various shaman deities like Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit), Yongwang (The Dragon King), Dokseong (The Lonely Saint), and two shrines dedicated to Samshin Halmoni (Three Spirits Grandmother). So if you have the time and energy it takes to find Sinbulsa Temple, it’s well worth the effort.

A look at the Brahma Bell inside the Jong-ru Pavilion at the entry of Sinbulsa Temple.
The Yongwang-dang Hall and the Dokseong (Naban-jonja) outdoor shrine.
A look inside the Yongwang-dang Hall.
The Daeung-jeon Hall at Sinbulsa Temple.
A look inside the Daeung-jeon Hall with the main altar to the left and the Shinjung Taenghwa in the background to the right.
The unique Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) shrine inside the Daeung-jeon Hall with paintings of the Siwang (Ten Kings of the Underworld) backing the elephant-riding statue of Jijang-bosal.
A statue of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) at Sinbulsa Temple.
The Samshin Halmoni shrine near the entry of the temple.
The rare mural housed inside of Samshin Halmoni.
A look inside the Sanshin-gak Hall.
The mural of Samshin Halmoni and Dangsan Cheonwang inside the Samshin-dang Hall.

North Korea Food Insecurity Leads to Regime Insecurity? Likely Not Unfortunately


This is a re-post of an article I wrote this month for The National Interest.

The editor asked me to comment on whether North Korea’s recently announced ‘food crisis’ could lead to regime instability? The answer is probably not.

North Korea has proven remarkably resilient to the buffets of history and geopolitics. Much of this, I bet, is simply due to repression. If you are willing to eat your own children to stay in power, then you probably will. Kim Jong Il let a million of his people starve to death in the late 1990s in order to not change anything meaningful about the governance of North Korea – no opening, no aid with conditions, no nothing, even if people were literally dying in the streets.

It’s true that his son seems less openly callous and bloodthirsty. By North Korean standard, Kim Jong Un is a step up. At least he has admitted this food crisis, unlike his father’s adamant refusal during the ‘Arduous March.’

But the limits of Kim III’s ‘modern outlook’ are likely pretty narrow. He won’t change the economy to be more efficient, because he fears an unraveling akin to the USSR after perestroika. And of course, he’ll kill anyone has must to stay in power.

So after 75 years without a revolt, including a brutal famine, it is unlikely this latest round of food insecurity will lead to regime challenges. Alas…

The full essay follows the jump:


North Korea is once again having food shortages. This is by now a well-known problem, and the government is at least admitting it this time. When North Korea last experienced major food insecurity – in the late 1990s – then-leader Kim Jong Il refused to admit it, as some one million people starved to death around him. Thankfully, current leader Kim Jong Un is admitting reality. This means he is more likely to do something about it. This Kim is no reformer, but at least he seems to care about the state of the economy more than his reclusive, disinterested father.

The cause of this latest round of food insecurity is apparently the weather. The same excuse was used twenty-five years ago. Somehow weather variations do not provoke famine alerts in neighboring South Korea, where I live. The real reasons, as always, are almost certainly political – staggering misgovernment and corruption.

Sanctions will be blamed, but their impact on agriculture is marginal. They are mostly concentrated on elite luxury goods and industrial items of dual-use (those which can be used for either military or civilian purposes), and there are humanitarian carve-outs if the regime would take advantage of them. Food aid would be forthcoming if some kind of oversight could insure that aid would go to the hungry and not to the military or other regime actors. This was a problem in the late 1990s and likely will be this year too.

This is inherently a political question: foreigners could help but the regime has been unwilling to accept even the slightest accountability mechanisms. Indeed, this crisis is a test of the claim that this Kim is a reformer. If he is, he will recognize that outside assistance is not simply a blank check. There needs to be some mechanism to insure its proper use.

The closure of the border with China due to covid is the most likely the proximate cause. North Korea’s corrupt ‘socialist’ agronomy is underproductive and inefficient. To avoid a repeat of the late 1990s famine – the Arduous March – the regime has looked the other way on illicit food imports from China. Informal pathways into northeastern China were set up by North Koreans crossing the border in desperation during the famine. The regime has not much cracked down on them since – likely because these continuing illicit inputs facilitate regime security by helping to feed the population and forestall genuine popular desperation.

A famine is a fairly obvious reason to revolt: if you are starving to death, you have nothing to lose. If the regime cannot feed its people, it must either change, take foreign help, or risk bread riots and internal dissent. Even Mao Zedong relented on the Great Leap Forward when the extent of the ensuing famine became undeniable. But the Kim regime of North Korea has rejected political change for decades, likely because it fears opening a pandora’s box of demands from below, including unification. So if ‘socialism’ – despite its corruption and inefficiency – must be maintained, and foreign aid is anathema because of accountability mechanism, inward ‘leakage’ from China is a useful alternative to keep the population fed and quiescent.

But if that informal backdoor is now closed because of covid, the system’s internal contradictions start to accumulate. Collectivized agriculture is notoriously inefficient, and in North Korea, rampant corruption worsens this. The regime’s answer last time was to simply take the political risk of allowing mass starvation. And it was indeed remarkable that no violence at scale occurred. This suggests that the regime is indeed stable: it allowed 10% of its population to starve in the late 1990s and nothing happened. While a staggering humanitarian catastrophe, it is an astonishing testament to regime strength – if only because the government so successfully terrorizes its own people.

But permitting two decades of inward, illicit China traffic also suggests that regime knows how risky the late 1990s really was. Kim Jong Un promised on his ascension that such ‘belt-tightening’ would not happen again. This promise likely does not reflect care for the population, but his recognition that a mass famine is an obvious catalyst for regime challenges.

So is the regime stable this time? Will another food crisis in North Korea finally bring popular pushback? Probably not. The regime, amazingly, survived a similar, more extreme crisis twenty-five years ago. It would be foolish to bet against it. North Koreans may actually believe in the Kim cult, or perhaps the sheer harshness of the state against dissent has deterred North Koreans these many years. There has never been a revolt in North Korea in its seventy-five year history.

But that Kim felt compelled to admit what his father never admitted testifies to the scale of the crisis. Kim promised such an event would never happen, and yet here it is. Economic growth, after his father’s catastrophic mismanagement, has been a legitimizing element of his rule. If push-back, from below or regime elements, ever does occur, this will likely be a part of that narrative. And if food insecurity spirals into a famine yet again, the regime will likely re-open the Chinese door and risk a covid spread.

Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University




Datjib – The Canopy: 닺집

The Datjib Inside the Geukrakbo-jeon Hall at Eunhaesa Temple in Yeongcheon, Gyeongsangbuk-do.


Inside almost all Korean Buddhist temple shrine halls, and standing above the main altar, is a canopy. While this canopy is brilliantly adorned and beautiful, the meaning behind it is less clear. So why are there canopies above the main altar? And why do they have somewhat differing designs?

The Canopy

The Korean Buddhist canopy that stands above the main altar inside a temple shrine hall is known as a “datjib – 닺집” in Korean. “Dat” means “separate” in English, while “jib” means “house” in English. So the canopy literally means “Separate House.” Another name for this canopy is “Celestial Canopy” in English, which is in reference to the airy feel that the roof-shaped structure exudes.

As for the actual material that makes up the canopy, it’s wood. And the woodwork consists of finely made interconnected brackets that have been ornately decorated with a variety of Buddhist motifs. The pillars that support the weight of the canopy are usually thin, which helps contribute to the airy feel of the canopy’s overall design. These pillars are also usually either red or gold in colour. Surrounding the typically red or gold coloured canopy are a variety of images like dragons, phoenixes, lotus flowers, and Bicheon (Flying Heavenly Deities). These four images aren’t the only figures that will appear around canopies, but they are the most common. And they add a certain luxuriousness to the normally solemn interior of a temple shrine hall. In fact, and at a glance, the canopy looks like a mini-palace.

Types of Canopies

In total, there are three different types of canopies that take up residence inside a Korean temple shrine hall above the main altar. They are: 1. “The Cloud Palace Type”; 2. “The Treasure Palace Type”; 3. “The Bejeweled Canopy Type.”

A great example of a “Cloud Palace Type” at Botaam Hermitage in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do.

The first of these three, “The Cloud Palace Type,” does not have any brackets in its design. Overall, the design is simple. However, while the design is more simplistic, the canopy area of the design directly above either the Buddha’s or Bodhisattva’s head is more ornate in design with images of clouds, dragons, flowers, and phoenixes. A great example of this can be found at Botaam Hermitage on the Tongdosa Temple grounds in Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do.

A “Treasure Palace Type” inside the Muryangsu-jeon Hall at Buseoksa Temple in Yeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do.
And another “Treasure Palace Type” inside the Daeung-jeon Hall at Beomeosa Temple in Geumjeong-gu, Busan.

The second type is “The Treasure Palace Type.” This type of canopy design appears as though it’s a completely separate structure. With the passage of time, this type of canopy grew more elaborate. A great example of this type of design can be found inside the Muryangsu-jeon Hall at Buseoksa Temple in Yeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do and the Daeung-jeon Hall at Beomeosa Temple in Geumjeong-gu, Busan.

And the third, and final, type of canopy design is “The Bejeweled Canopy Type.” This type of canopy is receding into the ceiling. Additionally, there are four sides to this canopy with finely designed brackets. A good example of this style of canopy can be found inside the Daeung-jeon Hall at Donghaksa Temple in Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do.

“The Bejeweled Canopy Type” inside the Daeung-jeon Hall at Donghaksa Temple in Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do.

The Canopy’s Meaning

So now that we know what they look like, why are canopies situated above the heads of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas upon the main altar of temple shrine halls? The textual reference appears in the Shorter Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra, which is a Mahayana sutra in Pure Land Buddhism. In fact, it’s one of the three principle Pure Land texts. This sutra consists of discourses that Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha) gave to Śāriputra, who was one of his disciples at Jetavana in Shravasti. These discussions focused on the beautiful and wondrous adornments that await the righteous in the Pure Land. The text also discusses what one must do to be reborn in the Pure Land. The canopy, in this context, is meant to symbolize the beauty that awaits in the Pure Land. More specifically, it’s a beacon in an unclear world which has an endless cycle of rebirth that we presently live. So the canopy acts as a reminder of the Pure Land for those that live in a world tainted by the cyclical existence of Samsara.


So at first glance, while a “datjib” may look like nothing more than a beautiful decorative item, it is packed with the symbolic meaning of the Pure Land. A canopy is a little piece of heaven that reminds people of the potentiality of what could be. So not only is this rather stunning structure beautiful in design, but it’s also loaded with meaning for Buddhists.

A beautiful canopy inside the Daeung-jeon Hall at Sujeongsa Temple in western Ulsan.
And the highly ornate canopy inside the Daeung-jeon Hall at Haedong Yonggungsa Temple in Gijang-gun, Busan.

Korean Test Practice with Billy [Ep. 30] – Intermediate Korean (Listening Practice)

Preparing for a Korean test? Want to see what a test question is like? I made this series for practicing test style questions that you could see in any Korean test. There are various levels, from Beginner to Advanced.

Today's test question is for intermediate level or above, but you can give it a try no matter your level. Let me know how you did in the comments!

Here is the listening example with its English translation.

여러분 안녕하세요. 오늘 제가 소개해 드릴 제품은 선풍기예요. 여기 이걸 보세요. 선풍기처럼 보이시나요? 정말 작죠? 이렇게 작아도 아주 시원해서 에어컨과 함께 사용하시면 방이 금방 시원해진답니다. 에이컨이 없으시다고요? 그래도 문제없습니다. 추가로 구매 가능한 미스트 수건과 함께 사용하신다면 에어컨처럼 시원한 바람을 만들어 낼 수 있습니다. 어떻게 이게 가능하냐고요? 이 선풍기의 특별함은 이 날개에 있습니다. 여기 이 선풍기 날개 보이세요? 이 선풍기 날개가 1초에 200번을 회전하며 강력한 바람을 만들어 낸다고 하네요. 정말 빠르지 않나요? 구매를 원하신다면 지금 방송에 나오는 이 번호로 전화 걸어주세요. 정상 가격 159,000원에서 오늘 하루만 특별한 가격, 99,000원으로 모시겠습니다. 시원한 여름을 보내고 싶으시다면 서둘러주세요!

Hello everyone. The product I will introduce to you today is a fan. Look here. Does this look like a fan? It’s really small, isn’t it? Even though it’s so small, it’s very cool, so if you use it together with an air conditioner the room will become cool right away. You don’t have an air conditioner? No problem. If you use it together with a misting towel, which you can purchase in addition to this, it can create cool air like an air conditioner. How is this possible, you ask? The specialty of this fan is in these blades. You see these fan blades here? These fan’s blades rotate 200 times per second, creating a strong wind. Isn’t it fast? If you’d like to make a purchase, please call this phone number in the broadcast. From the normal price of 159,000 Won, today only there’s a special price – it can be yours at 99,000 Won.

The post Korean Test Practice with Billy [Ep. 30] – Intermediate Korean (Listening Practice) appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

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Jeongtosa Temple – 정토사 (Nam-gu, Ulsan)

The Jeongtosa Temple Grounds in Nam-gu, Ulsan.

Temple History

Jeongtosa Temple is located in Nam-gu in the southern part of Ulsan past the Taehwa River. And it’s situated just to the east of the diminutive Mt. Samhosan (125.7 m). Jeongtosa Temple is named after “Jeongto,” which is the Korean word for “Pure Land” in English.

Jeongto is a pure heavenly realm that’s occupied by Buddhas and Bodhisattvas who have shed all of their afflictions. This is the ultimate goal of the popular Jeongto form of Korean Buddhism, which is known as the “Pure Land School” in English. Specifically, Jeongto is referring to a heaven in the Western Paradise inhabited by Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). In Mahayana Buddhism, there are numerous Buddhas, and each Buddha has their own Pure Land. For example, there is an Eastern Paradise, known as “Jeongyuri” in Korean, which is home to Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise). Of the these Pure Lands, Jeongto is the most popular. Based upon the Pure Land traditions, when an individual enters the Pure Land, it’s equivalent to attaining enlightenment. And once a person enters the Western Pure Land, the individual is then instructed by Amita-bul and numerous Bodhisattvas to help complete their attainment of enlightenment. It is at this stage that a person has the choice to return at any time as a Bodhisattva to any one of the Six Realms of Existence. Or they can stay in Jeongto and reach Buddhahood and deliver others from suffering. So it is to this symbolic meaning and tradition that Jeongtosa Temple is named.

Temple Layout

As you first approach Jeongtosa Temple, you’ll notice an upright stone marker with the name of the temple on it written in Korean: 정토사. Making your way towards the temple buildings, and up a slight incline, you’ll first notice stone statues of a dongja (attendants) and Podae-hwasang (The Hempen Bag) with a well-worn belly that’s been rubbed for good luck by those visiting the temple. Book-ending buildings guide you up towards the main hall and the lower courtyard. These buildings are the monks dorms, the visitors centre, and the temple’s kitchen.

A little to the left, and then back to the right, and up another concrete incline, you’ll be standing squarely in the centre of the temple’s lower courtyard. Straight ahead of you is the Daeung-jeon Hall. This large main hall’s exterior walls are adorned with various Buddhist motif murals like an all-white Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion) and Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) riding a white elephant. Stepping inside the Daeung-jeon Hall, you’ll find a triad of statues centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). This statue is joined on either side by, not so surprising, Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise) and Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). On the far left wall is a Dragon Ship of Wisdom mural, as well as a Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural). And to the right of the main altar is a multi-armed mural and statue dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal.

Out in front of the Daeung-jeon Hall, and reminiscent of the famed Four Lion Three-story Stone Pagoda of Hwaeomsa Temple, is a three-story stone pagoda at Jeongtosa Temple. Housed inside this pagoda are some purported sari (crystallized remains) of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). And to the right of the Daeung-jeon Hall is the Myeongbu-jeon Hall. Housed inside this temple shrine hall is a green haired statue dedicated to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife), who sits upon the main altar. And this statue of Jijang-bosal is joined inside the Myeongbu-jeon Hall by Siwang (The Ten Kings of the Underworld).

To the left of the Daeung-jeon Hall and the accompany lion based pagoda is a large stone statue and shrine dedicated to Gwanseeum-bosal. And to the right of this statue is the highly unique concrete pantheon of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. On the top level of this outdoor shrine, you’ll find statues dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul and Amita-bul. And on the lower levels of this neatly divided shrine, you’ll find images of Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy), Yaksayeorae-bul, and Gwanseeum-bosal.

To the rear of the Daeung-jeon Hall, and up another embankment that leads to the upper courtyard at Jeongtosa Temple, is the newly built Samseong-gak Hall. The murals housed inside the Samseong-gak Hall are the traditional triad that you’ll find at most Korean Buddhist temples. The central image is that of Chilseong (The Seven Stars). This image is joined on either side by Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit) and Dokseong (The Lonely Saint).

And to the far, far right, and housed on an overlooking courtyard, is a stone semi-circle shrine dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul. And this large stone statue is surrounded in the semi-circle by the sixteen Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha), the Sacheonwang (The Four Heavenly Kings), and various Buddhas and Bodhisattvas like Munsu-bosal, Jijang-bosal and Gwanseeum-bosal. And to the rear of this outdoor shrine is the newly constructed Geukrak-jeon Hall, which was in the process of being built when I visited in 2018. And it’s also from this vantage point that you get a beautiful view of the temple grounds below, including large temple murals that adorn the temple buildings like the three piece, twelve mural set, dedicated to the history of Buddhism and Buddhism in Korea.

How To Get There

From the Ulsan Intercity Bus Terminal in Nam-gu, you can take a taxi. The ride should last about twenty minutes and cost you 8,000 won. You can do that or take a bus from just north of the terminal around the KEB Bank. You’ll need to head north for about five hundred metres. You can then take Bus # 401, #307, #124, #417, #482, #712, #134, #432, or #733. The bus ride should take about twenty to twenty-five minutes. The name of the final bus stop is “Gongwonmyoji Ipgu – 공원묘지입구.” And from this bus stop, you’ll need to head north for about five minutes (just follow the signs).

Overall Rating: 8/10

I was very pleasantly surprised while visiting Jeongtosa Temple. There are a lot of halls, shrines, a beautiful pagoda, and murals to enjoy in and around the temple grounds. The highlights at this temple are the pantheon of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, the semi-circle shrine dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul, and the lion-based pagoda out in front of the main hall. But there is definitely a lot to see and enjoy at this lesser known temple near downtown Ulsan.

The entry to Jeongtosa Temple.
The Daeung-jeon Hall and lion-based pagoda.
A closer look at the lion-based three story stone pagoda reminiscent of the historic National Treasure found at Hwaeomsa Temple.
A statue of Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion).
The amazing outdoor shrine to the left of the Daeung-jeon Hall at Jeongtosa Temple.
A closer look at some of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas that inhabit it.
The pathway leading up to the Samseong-gak Hall.
The semi-circle outdoor shrine dedicated to Seokgamoni-bul.
Some of the stone reliefs of the outdoor shrine.
One of the temple building’s amazing artwork depicting Buddhism in Korea.

Removing markers when speaking | Korean FAQ

I often see Korean learners making sentences without adding all of the markers - removing the topic marker or removing the subject marker. This is usually fine. After all, native Korean speakers themselves do this sort of thing all the time. However, just because native speakers can remove markers when speaking, that doesn't mean markers aren't necessary in speech. In fact, removing markers isn't as easy as it seems - removing them can also sound less natural. It's unfortunately not as simple as "it's okay to remove markers." And removing too many markers can even sound awkward, or at the least sound less like a native.

I talk about how native Korean speakers do this, and what things to consider when you want to do this. I also give some advice for how you can sound more natural while removing the topic and subject marker.

The post Removing markers when speaking | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

Liquid Arts Podcast - Liquid Books: Tales of Braving Ulysses

The Liquid Arts podcast network launches its first “Liquid Books” podcast with “Tales of Braving Ulysses.” Join Steve Feldman, Frank Beaucher and Bob Perchan, three long-time Liquid Arts collaborators, for their “stream-of-consciousness” chat on James Joyce’s mammoth masterwork Ulysses--that sprawling tale of one single day in the life of inconsequential “everyman,” Leopold Bloom of Dublin, who, in his resolute humanity, becomes the equal of the greatest hero who ever lived. The greatest novel of the 20th century? Or just the most abandoned by bewildered readers after 120 pages? Whether you’ve read it, tried to read it, or are just curious about this imposing literary landmark, “Tales of Braving Ulysses” will entertain and enlighten. Steve Feldman, Frank Beaucher and Bob Perchan are three English teachers and writers who have all lived for decades in Busan, South Korea where they have collaborated in several Liquid Arts and pre-Liquid Arts readings, plays, films, blogs, and stand-up comedy shows.

The Liquid Arts Network seeks to create a global community for artists. Showcasing everything from poetry, art, film, music and performance, Liquid Arts events are a mosaic of blossoming talent.

Cook in Korean – Useful words and vocabulary for the kitchen

Adding to your knowledge, all the words related to how to cook in Korean and the tools needed can be another fun lesson for you to tackle.

Whether you want to attend a cooking class in Korea or identify the tools used to cook your dinner or explain how to make your favorite dishes when you’re in your home country, the following words will prove useful.

Let’s learn about cooking by learning all the vocabulary in this language for the tools, appliances, and utensils you’ll need, from the English language to Korean.

Cook in Korean

How to say “cook” in Korean

The word “cook” in English may have different definitions depending on whether it’s used as a verb or a noun in sentences. Here are their terms in Korean.

Cook in Korean (Noun)

If you’re pertaining to “cook” in Korean as a noun, you can say it as 요리 (yori). As a noun, it can also be said as 요리사 (yorisa), which means chef.

Cook in Korean (Verb)

The word for “cook” in Korean as a verb is 요리하다 (yorihada). This is made up of 2 words which are 요리 (yori) and 하다 (hada) where 요리 (yori) means cook and 하다 (hada) is to do. 요리하다 (yorihada) can be translated as “to cook.”

Essential kitchen vocabulary in Korean

You may eat or cook in different cuisines like French, Japanese, Italian, German, Dutch, Danish, and the like. Each cuisine creates delicious meals using the tools listed. For now, we’ll focus on the Hangeul translation of each word in English below. This may also be useful and essential if you want to teach your friend about cooking your home country’s cuisine!

Kitchen tools. Cooking utensil and electric appliances for baking oven, mixer, scales, mincer. Home cookware in minimalist style vector set. Toaster, jar for water and glass, frying pan and saucepan

Cookware in Korean

The term for “cookware” in Korean is 취사도구 (chwisadogu).

Words for Korean Cookware

These are the common tools used to prepare and cook food.

Skillet (Frying Pan) 냄비 (naembi),
프라이팬 (peuraipaen)
Braiser 브헤제 (beuheje)
슬라이서 (seullaiseo)
Kitchen Scale 조리용 저울 (joriyong jeoul)
Mixing Bowl
믹싱 볼 (miksing bol)
Chopping Board, Cutting Board 도마 (doma)
Mandolin 만돌린 (mandollin)
Stock Pot 육수 냄비 (yuksu naembi)
Kettle 주전자 (jujeonja)
Rubber Gloves 고무장갑 (gomujanggap)
Food Container 용기포장, (yonggipojang),
식품 (sikpum),
보관용기 (bogwanyonggi)
Mortar and Pestle 막자사발과 막자(makjasabalgwa makja),
절구와 절구 공이(jeolguwa jeolgu gongi)
Stone Pot 돌솥 (dolsot)
Earthenware Pot 뚝배기 (ttukbaegi)
Grinder 가는 기구 (ganeun gigu)
Strainer, Colander 여과기 (yeogwagi),
거르개 (georeugae),
체 (che)
Sauce Pan, Pot 냄비 (naembi)
Sheet Pan 시트 팬 (siteu paen)
Baking Dish 베이킹 접시 (beiking jeopsi)
Can Opener 캔 오프너 (kaen opeuneo),
깡통따개 (kkangtongttagae)
Zester 껍질벗기개 (kkeopjilbeotgigae)
Salad Spinner 채소 탈수 바구니 (chaeso talsu baguni),
채소 탈수기 (chaeso talsugi),
채소건조기 (chaesogeonjogi)
Wok 웍 (wok)
Saute Pan 소테팬 (sotepaen),
볶음용 팬 (bokkeumyong paen)
Grater 강판 (gangpan)

Utensils in Korean

There are two ways to say “utensils” in Korean. You can say it as 밥그릇 (bapgeureut) or 기구 (gigu).

Words for Korean Utensils

These handheld tools used to cook are ultimately important, from the preparation of food to dining.

Knife 칼 (kal)
Spatula 주걱 (jugeok),
뒤집개 (dwijipgae)
Measuring Spoon 계량스푼 (gyeryangseupun)
Rice Paddle 밥주걱 (bapjugeok)
Scissors 가위 (gawi)
Measuring Cup 계량 컵 (gyeryang keop)
Peeler 껍질 벗기는 칼 (kkeopjil beotgineun kal)
Whisk 거품기 (geopumgi)
Tongs 집게 (jipge)
Meat Tenderizer 연육제 (yeonyukje)
Fork 포크 (pokeu)
Spoon 숟가락 (sutgarak),
스푼 (seupun)
Chopsticks 젓가락 (jeotgarak)

Kitchen Appliances in Korean

The term for “kitchen appliances” in Korean is 주방용품 (jubangyongpum).

Words for Korean Kitchen Appliances

These cooking appliances are most relevant to the actual cooking process.

Rice Cooker 밥솥 (bapsot)
Microwave 전자레인지 (jeonjareinji)
Blender 분쇄기 (bunswaegi),
믹서기 (mikseogi)
Oven 오븐 (obeun)
Stove 레인지 (reinji)
Toaster 토스터 (toseuteo)
Coffeemaker 커피메이커 (keopimeikeo)
Fridge 냉장고 (naengjanggo)
Freezer 냉동고 (naengdonggo)
Electric Whisk 전기 거품기 (jeongi geopumgi)
Grill 그릴 (geuril),
석쇠 (seoksoe)
Gas Burner 가스버너 (gaseubeoneo)
Food Processor 만능 조리 기구 (manneung jori gigu)
Slow Cooker 전기 찜솥 (jeongi jjimsot)

Did we miss any essential cooking tools? Please let us know so we can add it to the list and teach you even more! Which tools and appliances are your personal favorites to use when cooking? And have you already searched with people you know from Korea how many of the same items you have in your respective kitchens? Let us know your answers and examination results in the comments!

The post Cook in Korean – Useful words and vocabulary for the kitchen appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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Social Distancing Level in Busan Area: Level 1.5 (from June 14 until July 4)


Social Distancing Level in Busan Area: Level 1.5 (with some adjusted quarantine measures) 

(Effective Monday, June 14 until Sunday, July 4, 2021)


Quarantine Measures for Prevention and Control (Common):

Required quarantine rules:

① Wear a mask, ② Keep a visitor log (except shops·marts·department stores),

③ Ventilate and disinfect regularly,

④ Prohibit eating outside in food service areas, excluding water and non-alcoholic beverages,

⑤ Restrict entry of those with symptoms, ⑥ Appoint a disease control and prevention supervisor, ⑦ Public notice of quarantine measures for prevention and control, and facility capacity


1. Gatherings/Events

Private gatherings:

Private gatherings of 5 or more persons are prohibited

*Except when immediate family are gathering (gatherings of up to 8 persons to be allowed); when the families of the bride and the bridegroom have a meeting (gatherings of up to 8 persons to be allowed); when the private gatherings are accompanied with infants aged under 6 (gatherings of up to 8 persons to be allowed, only gatherings of up to 4 persons except infants aged under 6); when it is required for the care of children, the elderly, or the disabled; when a person is about to pass away requiring the family to gather; when people gather for sports games at sports facilities with their facility’s manager (hosting sports games at indoor and outdoor futsal fields, soccer fields and baseball fields); when people gather for traditional first-birthday parties for babies, celebrations known as doljanchi, at specialized venues with disinfection protocols.

*Those who are vaccinated against COVID-19 won’t be included in the count for family gatherings of up to 8 people, meaning it is possible to exceed gatherings of 8 family members.

*People who are vaccinated against COVID-19 include those who have received two vaccine doses (or completed applicable single-dose vaccination); those who have passed 14 days after getting their first dose of the vaccine.


– Reservations or entrance of 5 or more persons to multi-purpose facilities, including restaurants are prohibited


Other gatherings & events

- Gatherings or events with over 500 participants need to be reported and discussed with local governments. Mandatory compliance with quarantine measures

- Ban on rallies, festivals, large scale concerts and academic events with over 100 participants

- Wear a mask indoors, keep a visitor log, ventilate and disinfect regularly

Maintain 2-meter (at least 1-meter) distancing in the facilities


2. Multi-use Facilities

Comply with mandatory quarantine measures (wear a mask, keep visitor log (excluding department stores, marts, shops), ventilate and disinfect regularly, appoint a disease control and prevention supervisor)

▷ Priority facilities:

5 types of entertainment facilities (bars, including night clubs and room salons, colatecs (Korean-style cabaret), karaoke bars, pubs, hunting pochas), Hold’em pubs (card game pubs)): Suspension of operations after 12AM until 5AM the next day, Required use of electronic log systems (including staff), limit on the number of people (1 person/8㎡, including staff and dealer), required to wear gloves when using public goods such as dice, cards, etc., when singing wear a facemask (install partitions and only one person singing at a time is allowed), dancing is prohibited (no operation of dancing halls or dance floors), Prohibited for people to move from room/table to room/table.


Door-to-door sales and direct sales promotion halls: Suspension of operations after 10PM until 5AM the next day, no eating (water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed) and singing, limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡)


Singing rooms (including coin singing rooms): Suspension of operations after 12AM until 5AM the next day, required use of an electronic log system, limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡), No eating (water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed rooms must be immediately disinfected and ventilate for more than 10 minutes after use.


Indoor standing performance halls: No eating (water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed), limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡)


Restaurants/cafes (including unmanned cafes):

-When more than two customers order only coffee, a beverage or dessert menu item, they will be strongly recommended to stay for up to an hour only.

-Take-out and delivery only past 12AM until 5AM the next day

-Facilities of 50㎡ or larger in size, comply with one of the following measures: ① Distance of 1 meter between tables; ② Empty seats/tables between seats/tables; ③ Install partitions between tables

-Buffets: Use of plastic gloves or hand sanitizers before and after use of tongs, plates, and utensils; keep distance between users in line for food.


▷ Regular facilities:

- Indoor sports facilities (including indoor winter sports facilities): Eating food is prohibited (water, non-alcohol beverage is permitted), limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡)

- Private academies (excluding study rooms), job training centers: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡) or keeping one empty seat between seats, No eating (water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed)

- Wedding halls, funeral halls: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡).

- Bathhouses: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡), eating food is prohibited (except water and non-alcohol beverage), no operations of saunas in bathhouses

- Movie theaters, Concert halls: Keep one seat empty between customers (sitting next to a companion is permitted); eating food is prohibited (except water and non-alcohol beverage)

- PC rooms: Keep one seat empty between customers; eating food is prohibited (except water and non-alcohol beverage)

- Multi-rooms/DVD rooms: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡); No eating (eating in individual spaces divided with partitions is acceptable; water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed)

- Study rooms and cafes: Keep one seat empty between visitors (except with partitions), group rooms up to 50% capacity (up to 4 persons), No eating (eating in individual spaces divided with partitions or in food zone is acceptable; water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed)

- Amusement and water parks: Limit on number of users to 1/2 of capacity

- Barbershops/hair salons: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡) or keep one seat empty between customers, eating food is prohibited (except water and non-alcohol beverage).

- Department stores·large supermarkets: Visitor temperature checks, mandatory to wear a face mask, ventilate and disinfect regularly

- Retail stores other than department stores and large supermarkets (larger than 300 ㎡): Mandatory to wear a face mask, ventilate and disinfect regularly

- Convenience stores are only permitted take-out and delivery past 12AM until 5AM the next day (eating food and providing an area to eat including outdoor tables are prohibited).

- Street vendors are only permitted take-out and delivery past 12AM. until 5AM the next day (eating food is prohibited).


3. Daily Life and Social & Economic Activities

▷ Mandatory to wear a face mask

All indoor facilities, outdoor locations where people cannot stay 2 meters apart; administrative fine to be imposed for violations

▷ Sports activities: Limited spectators (30%)

▷Use of public transportation: Mandatory to wear a face mask

▷School: 2/3 of student capacity recommended

▷Religious activities: In-person worship services (i.e. Christian, Catholic, Buddhist, Cheondoist) at less than 30 percent seat capacity, but prohibited from holding meetings, providing meals and accommodation. Especially, prohibited from holding meetings and events except regular religious activities at prayer houses, retreat and missionary centers.

▷Work Pattern:

Working from home recommended for a proportion of workers per organization/division (e.g: 1/3 of employees)

Mandatory wearing of face masks in businesses considered high-risk (distribution and logistics centers, call centers)


Other Activities

▷ Accommodations: prohibited from exceeding capacity of people in one room; a ban on gatherings for events and parties hosted at accommodation venues, public notice of hosting private parties, resulting in compulsory check-out

▷ Party rooms: Limit on the number of people (1 person/8㎡), comply with one of the following measures: ① Distance of 1 meter between tables; ② Empty seats/tables between seats/tables; ③ Install partitions between tables

▷ Sales businesses with experiential activities and briefing sessions (regardless of being registered or unregistered): Ban on briefing sessions; ban on close contact between salespeople and customers during experiential activities. (Clean or sanitize customers’ hands and equipment after experiential activities, keep two meters distance between customers)

▷ Exhibits and expos: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡), no eating (water and non-alcoholic beverages allowed)

▷ International conferences: Limit on the number of people (1 person/4㎡)

▷ National and public facilities: Suspended operations of velodromes, regattas and race courses, Casinos limited to 20% of visitor capacity; Other facilities (including sports facilities) limited to 50% capacity

▷ Social welfare facilities: Operating under strict quarantine measures.

※ Facilities’ operations shall be partially suspended and only provide emergency care in consideration of increasing virus cases within a region or the risk/disinfection situation at facilities


The city government will impose a “one-strike-out” policy on rule violations. A violation of the quarantine rules even once will immediately result in operations being shut down.


Violations of the quarantine rules: Fines of up to 100,000 won for individual violators and up to 3 million won for facility managers, business owners and operators.



Date of Issue: 2020.10.27 질병관리청COVID-19-Correct methods of wearing a mask Wearing a mask can prevent infectious diseases. 1 Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and running water before putting on a mask2 Place the mask tightly on the face, fully covering your mouth and nose. 3 Do not put a towel, tissues, etc. in the mask.4 Do not touch the mask while wearing the mask.If you do, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and running water. 5 Wash your hands with soap and running water after removing the mask, and remove the mask by touching its straps only.A fold-type mask1 Unfold the mask and roung the side edges.2 Ensure its nose wire is facing upwards, ully covering your nose and mouth3 Put the ear loops around your ears.4 Use both hands to pinch the nose wire around your nose.5 Keep the mask fit tightly on your face, checking air leakage. A cup-type mask1 Gently hold the mask in your hand, letting the headbands hang downwards.2 Place the mask on your face, covering your nose and chin. 3 Pull the top strap over your head and secure it around the crown of your head. 4 Pull the bottom strap over your head and secure it on the back of your neck with a holding device. 5 Use both hands to pinch the nose wire around your nose.6 Keep the mask fit tightly on your face, checking air leakage.Source: Correct Methods of Wearing Hygiene Masks by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety 



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