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Biroam Hermitage – 비로암 (Dong-gu, Daegu)

The Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple and the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall at Biroam Hermitage in Dong-gu, Daegu.

Hermitage History

Biroam Hermitage is located on the famous Donghwasa Temple grounds on Mt. Palgongsan (1193 m) in Dong-gu, Daegu. Biroam Hermitage is the closest of the hermitages directly associated with Donghwasa Temple on the main temple grounds. Biroam Hermitage was first founded in 863 A.D. during Later Silla (668 – 935 A.D.). The Donghwasa Historical Chronicles – 동화사사적기, which is a historical document that describes the history of Donghwasa Temple, has an entry about Biroam Hermitage. Interestingly, the entry describes Biroam Hermitage as Biro-jeon Hall. The Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall, which is the main hall at Biroam Hermitage, is believed to have been built in the late 18th century.

What makes Biroam Hermitage famous, though, are the three historical artifacts on and from the hermitage grounds. One is the Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #247; another is the Agalmatolite Reliquary from the Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which was contained within the historic Later Silla-era pagoda and is Korean Treasure #741; and the final is the Stone Seated Vairocana Buddha at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #244.

Hermitage Layout

You first make your way up towards Biroam Hermitage by a paved pathway for about fifty metres. This paved pathway merges with the Donghwasa Temple parking lot, so it’s a really easy hermitage to find.

Biroam Hermitage is a compact place. It’s filled with various buildings, but only the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall is open to visitors. The main hall is traditionally painted in dancheong colours. As for the interior, and resting on the main altar, you’ll find the Stone Seated Vairocana Buddha at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #244. This statue of Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy) dates back to the 9th century. It sits on a pedestal, and it’s surrounded by a full body mandorla. Overall, it’s in good shape. The statue of Birojana-bul has a plump face with small eyes. It also has a small mouth and nose. The shoulders of the statue are rather narrow and the chest is rather flat. These features are typical of a Buddha statue of the mid-9th century. The right hand of the statue is covering the left index finger, which is known as the “Diamond Fist of Wisdom.” It’s a typical mudra, or “suin” in Korean, for Birojana-bul in Korea. The edges of the mandorla that surround the entire body of Birojana-bul has a flame design. At the top of the mandorla, there’s a Buddha triad. Also, there are eight Buddhist images arranged on either side of the mandorla. This image of Birojana-bul at Biroam Hermitage was made to commemorate the reign of King Minae of Silla (r. 838-839 A.D.) during the reign of King Gyeongmun of Silla (r. 861 – 875 A.D.). And fortunately for us, they’ve stripped away the garish white paint that used to adorn the entire statue and returned it to its natural stone surface.

Out in front of the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall is a newer-looking stone lantern (seokdeung). And it’s in front of this stone lantern that you can see the Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #247. The three-story stone pagoda at Biroam Hermitage rests upon a double-tiered stone base that sits upon an earthen platform. As for the body, it’s a rather typical Silla-era three-story stone pagoda with a capstone. The entire structure gradually decreases in size from bottom to top, which creates a sense of balance and stability. And the straight eaves of each story gently curve upwards at the corner. Again, this is a rather typical design of Silla-era pagodas. Of the finial that tops the pagoda, the lowest part remains. In 1966, repair work was done on the pagoda. It was at this time that it was discovered that some of the reliquaries inside the pagoda had been stolen. An inscription was also discovered at this time on the inner surface of a reliquary. This inscription revealed the age of the pagoda, which was 863 A.D. And the pagoda had also been built, like the statue of Birojana-bul inside the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall, to the memory of King Minae of Silla.

The third, and final Korean Treasure, at Biroam Hermitage is the Agalmatolite Reliquary from the Three-story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple. The reliquary, unfortunately, is now housed at the Dongguk University Museum in Jung-gu, Seoul, so you’ll have to make your way up to Seoul, and not Daegu, if you want to see this amazing piece of Buddhist craftsmanship. Also, the reliquary is Korean Treasure #741. The reliquary dates back to Later Silla (668-935 A.D.), and it was discovered in the aforementioned Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple (T #247). Agalmatolite, or pagodite, stone is typically greyish green or greyish yellow in colour. The jar used to store sari (crystallized remains). The jar is 8.3 cm tall, and the upper diameter of the jar is 8.0 cm. The base, on the other hand, is 8.5 cm. At present, the jar is broken into four different sized pieces. And its lid is missing. The damage caused to the jar was most likely caused by grave robbers. The style of the jar was popular during the mid-9th century in the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C. – 935 A.D.). The most unique feature of this jar is that the exterior surface is painted completely in black. The exterior body of the jar is divided into box-like patterns. In total, there are thirty-eight lines of verse that fill these boxes. Each of the thirty-eight lines of verse are composed of seven characters that are directly engraved on the surface of the jar. Specifically, these verses let people know that the reliquary is directly related to the stone pagoda built for King Minae of Silla (r. 838-839 A.D.). Furthermore, the engravings detail the record of the king’s life and the construction date of the pagoda, which is 863 A.D.

Unfortunately, all of the other buildings at Biroam Hermitage are off-limits to visitors. In front of the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall, and the historic three-story pagoda, are the monks quarters. An to the immediate right of the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall are the monks facilities like the kitchen.

How To Get There

From the Seobu Intercity Bus Terminal in Daegu, you’ll need to take the subway, line #1, that heads towards Anshim and get off at Ahyanggyo Station. From here, take Express Bus #1. The ride will take about thirty-five minutes, and it brings you right to Donghwasa Temple. Past the main gate, and up the temple road, you’ll get to the temple parking lot. From the temple parking lot, instead of heading straight towards Donghwasa Temple, hang a right towards a paved pathway. There are a couple small signs pointing you towards Biroam Hermitage.

Overall Rating: 4/10

After visiting one of Korea’s major temples in Donghwasa Temple, you’ll naturally be a bit underwhelmed by the compact Biroam Hermitage. However, with that being said, there are a couple reasons that you might want to visit Biroam Hermitage, while you’re in the area. And both of those reasons are Korean Treasures. The first is the amazing Stone Seated Vairocana Buddha at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple (T #244), and the other is the Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple (T #247). Both of these amazing stone artifacts date back to 863 A.D., and they give a visitor a glimpse back into Korea’s Buddhist past.

The pathway that leads up to Biroam Hermitage.
The Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #247.
The Agalmatolite Reliquary from the Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is now housed at the Dongguk University Museum in Seoul. (Picture courtesy of the Cultural Heritage Administration website).
The Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall at Biroam Hermitage.
The Stone Seated Vairocana Buddha at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple, which is Korean Treasure #244.
A cute little stone statue of the Buddha out in front of the main hall.
And the view from the Daejeokgwang-jeon Hall past the stone lantern (seokdeung) and towards the Three-Story Stone Pagoda at Biroam Hermitage of Donghwasa Temple.

Yuga-jong – Consciouness-Only Sect: 육아종

Xuanzang (602-644 A.D.), or Hyeonjang in Korean, the Patriarch of the Consciousness-Only Sect.

There are two primary texts that the Yuga-jong sect follows. They are the Yogacarabhumi-sastra (Treatise on the Stages of the Yoga Masters) and the Vijnaptimatratasiddhi (Treatise on Consciousness Only). This sect is also known as Yusik-jong – 유식종, or the Consciousness-Only sect in English. The reason for this is that in yoga, and in the mind, there are manifestations of various dharmas.

Another name this sect goes by is Beopsang – 법상종, which focuses on the Dharma Laksana. The founder of this sect in China was the Dharma Master Xuanzang (602-644 A.D.), or Hyeonjang in Korean, who started to teach this doctrine at the Cien Temple. That’s why this sect is called the Cien sect.

The word Lakshana is a combination of two Sanskrit words. Those words are lakshaya and kshana. And these words mean “indication” or “symptoms.” The reason that this is important is that the smallest particle of time, or kshana, allows for the entire universe to undergo a change. So each moment, or particle, of time is a product of that change. Importantly, time doesn’t have a separate existence. You can see why this would be important to those focused on mindfulness.

Jinpyo (fl. 8th century) (Picture Courtesy of this Korean Website).

In Korea, the greatest early proponent of these teachings was the monk Jinpyo (fl. 8th century). The Yuga-jong sect reveres Mireuk-bul (The Future Buddha) as their main Buddha of worship. They also respect the Chinese master Xuanzan and Kuiji (632-682 A.D.). Together with the six Korean patriarchs, they form the eight patriarchs of this sect. Rather interestingly, it wasn’t until their deaths that the six Korean patriarchs were celebrated.

So excluding Jinpyo, who are the five other Korean patriarchs? Well, we have some assistance from historical writing like the Epigraph of Royal Preceptor Hyedeok of Geumsansa, (Geumsansa Hyedeok wangsa-bi), when it states, “Master Wonhyo first opened the Way, and Taehyeon followed in his footsteps, the lamp was transmitted ablaze from one generation to the other, it was inherited and flourished.” So with this being said, we can include both Wonhyo and Taehyeon in the group of six Korean patriarchs. Additionally, and found in the Song gaoseng zhuan, it reports about the biography of the Silla monk named Sungyeong, when it states, “He inherited from Xuanzang the transmission of the true Consciousness-only doctrine of syllogisms, and therefore elaborated the theory of determining contradictory and non-deductive statements.” This is furthered by the Shimen Zijing-lu, when it states, “When Sungyeong was in his home country [Silla], he wrote many books, some of which were circulated in China, and the faith they deal with is the teaching of the Faxiang school of the Greater Vehicle.” So from this we can infer that Sungyeong was another of the six Korean patriarchs. Concerning the two final Korean patriarchs, there are no records that can be relied upon. However, it is believed by some that there are three possible candidates for the two remaining spots. These master monks are Woncheuk, Gyeongheung, and Dojeung, who all greatly expanded and expounded the Yuga-jong sect teachings. However, it’s only in Jinpyo that the teachings are transmitted in a direct line; and thus, become a sect from one master to the next.

So who was Jinpyo? Jinpyo was born in Wansan (present-day Jeonju), and was raised in Mangyeong-hyeong (present-day Gimje). At the age of twelve, Jinpyo became a monk at Geumsansa Temple under the monk Sungje. Then, at the age of twenty-seven, he went to Seongye (present-day Buan) to live at a hermitage. There he meditated for some twenty-one days in front of a Mireuk-bul (Future Buddha) statue. At this time, Jinpyo had visions of Mireuk-bul where he preached the precepts to the monk. Jinpyo also received from Mireuk-bul the “Sutra on the Divining the Requital of Good and Evil Actions” in two books and 189 bamboo sticks. Later, Jinpyo went to Geumsansa Temple, where a statue of Mireuk-bul, standing sixteen feet tall, was made from metal. The temple then became the main site for the Yuga-jong sect. Not only that, but the precepts were observed here, as well. Also, at this time, divination ceremonies were held.

Jinpyo had numerous disciples including Yeongsim, who was active on Mt. Songnisan. And Yeongsim’s disciple was the Royal Preceptor Simji, who propagated the Yuga-jong sect at Donghwasa Temple in Daegu. From this point, the Yuga-jong sect prospered.

The Mireuk-jeon Hall at Geumsansa Temple in Gimje, Jeollabuk-do.

How To Say Yes In Korean(Ne Or De)? The Correct Way



How To Say Yes In Korean(Ne Or De)? The Correct Way


The most common way to say yes in Korean is 네(ne). The other formal way is to use the Korean word for yes 예 (Ye). But if you want to say yes in a casual situation, you say the word 응 [eung] or 엉 [ung].

  • 네 [Ne] –Standard Way To Say Yes In Korean
  • 예 [Ye] - Politer/More Formal Way To Say Yes In Korean
  • 응 [Eung]- Informal and Cute Way Of saying Yes In Korean language(Used By Women)
  • 엉 [Ung] - The Korean word for Yes In informal way (Used By Men)

Respect is a big deal in Korean culture.

Basically, there are two levels of politeness in Korean: casual (반말) and polite (존댓말) and each has unique terms for each of them.

No worries. 

We've put together a guide to help you decide when and how to use each one.

Let’s start with….


Yes In Korean Formal: How Do You Say Yes In Korean Politely?

There are two ways to say yes in Korean language in formal situations like talking to someone older than you, boss, teachers, seniors, or strangers. One is to use the word  “네 (Ne)” and the other way is 예 (Ye).

The main difference between 네(ne) and 예(de) is that “예(de)” sounds more formal than the other.

Tips box: An interesting tip worth noting is that because 예[ye] was the original word for “yes” in Korean, the older generation tends to use it more. On the other hand, the younger generation tends to use 네[ne]... so it’s good to know both!


Let’s see how to use each of them in sentences


The Basic Polite Way To Say Yes In Korean: What Is 네 (Ne) In Korean?


It's a polite and standard way to say yes in Korean. It can be used in formal situations between strangers or parents, but also between teachers, students, and business partners.

There are so many ways to use 네(ne) in Korean! Here is a list of situations you can use it depending on what you're talking about. 

There's no need to be shy!

When to use

  • You are talking to someone older than you.
  • You are not sure if they are older or younger than you and don't know them , like a stranger.
  • You are talking with seniors, the boss, teachers or business partners.
  • You are talking to a group of people or in a debate (like formal situation) 
  • You are unsure if the situation requires formal or informal Korean.


How to use


You can bow once a little bit and then say "ne" to express agreement in Korean. The bow is a sign of respect in Korea.

Let’s see some examples …..., shall we?


  • Do you like soju?

          소주 좋아해요?soju joahaeyo

  •  Yes
     네- ne 


  •  Is this an apple?
     이게 사과예요?- ige sagwaeyo


  •  Yes, it is
     네, 사과예요 - ne sagwaeyo


Sample Korean conversation

Here is a general conversation between a senior and his junior in a college

Sunbae:  Did you read the magazine?

               그 잡지 읽었어요?- geu japjji ilgossoyo

Hubae:  Yes, I read it last night.

              네. 어젯밤에 읽었어요. - ne ojetppame ilgossoyo

Sunbae:  Did you see our article today?

               오늘 우리 기사 뜬 거 봤어요?- oneul uri gisa tteun go bwassoyo

Hubae:   Yes, but I didn’t know it was so long

               네, 하지만 그렇게 긴 줄 몰랐어요.- ne hajiman geuroke gin jul molrassoyo


Sunbae:  Did you understand everything?

               다 알아들으셨나요?

Hubae: yes, roughly

            네, 대충?-daechung

hubae:  I think it will help. Thank you, senior

             도움이 될 것 같은데.진짜 감사합니다, 선배님.- doumi dwel got gateunde.jinjja gamsahamnida sunbaenim

예 (Ye) How To Write Yes In Korean politely?

Just like "ne," "de" is a super formal way to say yes in Korean language.

However, Koreans don't tend to use it as much as "ne" in everyday situations.

When to use

So, when you are talking with older people who you want to be very respectful, like elders(grandma or grandpa) or you are meeting your “in-laws” for the first time, it is wise to use the Korean word for yes “예(de)”.

However, “네(ne)” is the common way of saying yes in Korean. So, when in doubt, just use the word “네(ne)”.

You can’t go wrong.


How to use

You can't just say "yes" in Korean. You need to bow your head once and then say "예(de)" for agreement. 


Now, let's see an example:

Sample Korean Conversation

Grandma: Minji, are you ok?

민지, 괜찮아?- minji, gwaenchanha?

Minji: yes, grandma

민지: 예, 할머니.- minji: ye halmoni

Grandma: Did you eat?

할머니: 밥 먹었어?- halmeoni: bab meog-eoss-eo?

Minji: yes, grandma

민지: 예, 할머니.- minji: ye halmoni

Pretty easy, isn’t it? 

So, what’s next? 


Yes In Korean Informal: How to Say Yes In Korean In Casual Style.

You don't have to worry about being polite with those close to you like when they're your friends, siblings, or anyone younger than you, you can relax and talk freely.

To answer yes in Korean, there are two informal ways to say it. One is 응 (eung) and the other is 어 (eo). The only difference between 어 (eo) and 응 (eung) is that Korean people use the word 응 (eung) more often during a real-life conversation than a phone call.

(응) Eung In Korean: How To Say Yes In Korean In Cute Way

응 is the word for yes in Korean language, which is mostly used by women. The way it's pronounced is a sound, "Eung".

Now, when you want to go ahead and say yes to friends or siblings, it’s really simple: just simply nod and say 응(eung).

How to use

Koreans usually say that when they are told something and they say 응 to confirm that they heard the person. But you can also type it "ㅇㅇ" because it's easier to type on a keyboard.

It is very important!!-If you use this to others you may be seen as an impolite person) And "네" is used to say to a stranger or who is older than you.

Example Conversation

  • Are you busy?
  • Yes


Sample Korean Conversation

Su jin: Did you work last night?

           너 어젯밤에 일했어?

Mi rae: Yes, I washed the dishes.

            응, 설거지를 했어 - eung solgojireul haesso

Su jin:  What else did you do?

            또 뭐 했어? - tto mwo haesso

Mi rae:  I listened to the radio for a while

            잠시 라디오를 들었어- jamsi radioreul deurosso

Su jin: I see. I thought you were working.

           그랬구나.나는 일하는 줄 알았어.-geuraetkkuna .naneun ilhaneun jul arasso

Mi rae:  No, I am on leave.

           아니,휴가 중이었다- anihyuga jungiottta

어 (Eo): How To Say Yeah In Korean Language To Friends.

You need to watch out for “어 (eo)”, guys!

Similar to 응 (eung), you can use the word 어 (eo) while you are talking to close friends, siblings and those younger than you. It is similar to “yeah” and “uhuh.


  • Sujin: Hello, billy

안녕, 빌리- annyong bilri

  • Billy: Hello sujin

안녕- annyong

  • Sujin: Are you busy tomorrow?

내일 바쁘니?- naeil bappeuni

  • Billy: No


  • Sujin: Do you want to go out for lunch?

점심 먹으러 나갈까?- jomsim mogeuro nagalkka

  • Billy: Yes! Let's go!

어! 가자


Example Conversation

  • Billy:   Hello, Min-ho

안녕, 민호야 - annyong minhoya

  • Min-ho:   Hello, billy

안녕, 빌리 - annyeong bilri

  • Billy:   Do you have plans tonight? Let’s go eat Chimaek (치맥)

오늘 약속 있나?치맥 먹으러 가자.oneul yaksok inna?chimaek mogeuro gaja

  • Min-ho: uhuh

어 (eo)

  • Billy:   Let's meet up at Hanchu Chicken.

그러면 한추치킨서 만나자.- geuromyon hanchuchikinso mannaja

  • Min-ho:   Ok. See you then.

그래. 그럼 그때 보자. - geurae geurom geuttae boja

  • Billy:  bye

안녕!- annyong

9 Advanced and Different Ways To Say Yes In Korean Language For Beginners.


As I said before ne literally mean yes in Korean language 

Ne is more than just yes in Korea. It can also mean many things

Actually, ne() can also mean “I agree” and also what you said is correct. In fact, it has a lot of meanings like I see, yay, i understand, that’s right. It can also be used as a conversation filler sometimes.

 If you listen to two Korean people talking to each other, you might hear them say  ne quite often if even if not intended to say  yes or agree to what other person is saying

Just like this example

Seo-Jun: You know I bought this dress yesterday

서준: 제가 어제 이 드레스를 산 거 아시죠?- jega oje i deureseureul san go asijyo

Dambi: Yes

담비: 네(ne)


Seo-Jun: I really like the color but it’s too expensive

서준: 색깔이 정말 마음에 드는데 너무 비싸네요.- saekkkari jongmal maeume deuneunde nomu bissaneyo

Dambi: Ne. How much is it?

담비: 네, 얼마나요?-Ne, olmanayo

Seo-Jun: 25000000 won ( equal to $2102)

서준: 25만원-isibo manwon


Dambi: Yes(what?)

담비: 네(ne)

Seo-Jun: I paid with my credit card.

서준: 신용카드로 결제했어요. -sinyongkadeuro gyoljehaessoyo

Dambi: Yes(i see)

담비: 네 (Ne )

It might cause a problem if you don’t know about it. so we’ll tell you with examples

So here it is

Here is the complete list of  9 Other Meaning of yes in Korean language with translation and examples 

  • Okay in Korean
  • Yes, that’s right in Korean
  • “yes, I Think So” in Korean
  • Here ne
  • What? really? (ne)


So let’s learn with examples

Okay in Korean[네 Or 응]: How to Say It's Ok in Korean


OK could be translated into many different meanings in Korean. 네 or 응(Ne or Ung) is the most common way of saying “OK” or “good” to acknowledge and let the other person know that you understand what they said to.


Here are the ways you can say ok in Korean


OK = 네 or 응 (Ne or Ung: means Yes)

OK = 알았어 (arasseo: means I got it)

OK = 그래 (Grae: means Yes)

OK = ㅇㅋ (Okay: it is slang and abbreviation of OK in a text message.)

OK = 오케이(This is the Korean pronunciation of OK.)

OK? = 알겠어? (algessu?: Do you get it?)

We recommend you to check out our specific lesson on how to say “ok ” in Korean for more information about that word.



  • Do you wanna go live on Instagram?

우리 SNS 라이브 할까? - uri esseuenesseu raibeu halkka

  • yes

  • Please wait here for a minute.

여기서 잠깐 기다려 주세요.- yogiso jamkkan gidaryo juseyo

  • Ok


Sample Korean Conversation

  • Let’s go to the movies tonight.

오늘 밤에 영화 보러 가자.-oneul bame yonghwa boro gaja

  • Okay, Let's do that. I don't have a schedule today.

그래, 그러자.나 오늘 스케줄 없어.-geurae geuroja. na oneul seukejul opsso

  • What movie should we see?

무슨 영화를 볼까?-museun yonghwareul bolkka

  • Let’s watch a horror movie? 

우리 공포 영화 보러 가자.-uri gongpo yonghwa boro gaja

  • okay. See you in the evening.

네. 저녁에 보자.-ne. jonyoge boja

  • Bye


네, 맞아요– how to say That’s Right in Korean? 

맞아요 means, “That’s right.” In Korean, it literally translates to “you’re not wrong.” or what you said is correct.

If you are talking to elders, customer, boss or strangers, you can use 마자요.” (ma-ja-yo). 맞아(ma-ja) is the informal

I see, so Korean people often use 맞아요 [ma-ja-yo] after “네 [ne] ”. 네 [ne] is also used for "I see".


A:   isn’t this dress beautiful?

이 드레스 아름답지 않나요?-i deureseu areumdapjji annayo

B:  yes, That’s right

네,맞아요.- ne, majayo

A:   Isn't there 12 fruits in the bag?

봉지에 과일 12개 들어있지 않아?-bongjie gwail sibi gae deuroitjji ana

B:  yes, That’s right

응,맞아.- eung, maja

Sample Korean Conversation

  • Is there any supermarket here?

여기 슈퍼마켓이 있나요?-yogi syupomakesi innayo

  • There’s one besides to that drugstore

저 약국 옆에 하나 더 있어요.-jo yakkkuk yope hana do issoyo

  • Do you mean that blue building ?

저 파란 건물 말씀하시는 건가요?-jo paran gonmul malsseumhasineun gongayo

  • Yes, that’s right

네,맞아요.- ne, majayo

  • Thank you 



You're so happy! You can't wait to say yes. 

 How are you going to let the world know? Say 'yes!'

You can use Korean to show your excitement. Just say "네, Neeee!"

Sample Korean Conversation

  • I'm going to buy some food. Do you want anything?

먹을 것 좀 사 올게요. 뭐 먹을래요?

  • Yes, chicken

네, 치킨- ne chikin

  • I will go buy it

내가 사올게- naega saolge

  • Yay. thanks friend

네. 고마워 친구야 - ne. gomawo chinguya 



When someone says something to you but you don’t understand or you are not paying too much attention, you can say "ne". It means “What did you say?”, “Pardon me?” or “Sorry, I didn't hear you.


Sample Korean conversation

ji-woo :  Hey, do you have an umbrella?

은우:  저기요, 우산 있어요? -  Eunu :  jogiyo usan issoyo

Soo-ah : pardon

수아 : 네 - ne

Jiwoo:  Do you have an umbrella? Umbrella?

지우:  있어요? 우산? -  usan issoyo?usan?

Soo-ah:  yes, I have. you can take this

수아: 네, 있어요. 이거 가져가도 돼요 - sua: ne issoyo. igo gajogado dwaeyo

Jiwoo :  thank you 

감사합니다 - gamsahamnida

Soo-ah:  yes

수아: 네 - ne

  • How to express “yes, I Think So” in Korean?

You can use ‘네?’ to express your opinion when you are unsure of something or agree with the other person. 

Sample Korean Conversation

Do you know the guy over there?

저기 있는 남자 알아요?-jogi inneun namja arayo

yes, I think it's my friend, Ji woo

네, 제 친구 지우인 것 같아요.- ne, je chingu jiuin got gatayo

Here -내(ne) 

Let's say the Teacher is Calling students' names in the class and students are answering “yes, I am here”. Koreans use 내(ne)  to express their presence in such cases. 

Let me explain with an example 

Teacher: Min ji

선생님:민지- sonsaengnim minji

Min-ji:   Yes

민지: 네.- minji ne

Teacher: Soo-ah

선생님: 수아

sonsaengnim sua

Soo-ah:  Yes 

수아: 네.- sua ne

Teacher:  Jiwoo 

선생님: 지우-sonsaengnim jiu

Jiwoo:  Yes




 The surprised yes in Korean : What? (ne)

When does someone say something that is too hard to think that it’s true or it's way too unbelievable then, just like in English we say "what"? Korean use "ne" instead 

Let’s see one example to see what I mean 


Mi-soo: I bought earrings yesterday. This one.

미소: 저 어제 귀걸이 샀어요. 이거.

Misu: jo oje gwigori sassoyo. igo.

Sun-Hee: So pretty. Where did you buy it?

선희: 너무 예뻐요. 어디서 샀어요?

sonhi: nomu yeppoyo. odiso sassoyo. 

Mi-soo: At Galleria Department Store. But it’s expensive

미소: 갤러리아 백화점에서요. 하지만 비싸요

Misu: gaelroria baekwajomesoyo. hajiman bissayo.

Sun-Hee: How much?


sonhi: olmanayo

Mi-soo: 10000000 won (note: equals to $844)

미소: 100만원 -Misu: baek manwon

Sun-Hee: What?


Sonhi: (Ne)

Mi-soo: I paid with my mother's credit card. I think I'm in trouble.

미소: 나는 엄마 카드로 결제했어요. 나 큰일 난 것 같아.

Misu: naneun omma kadeuro gyoljehaessoyo na keunil nan got gata.

Sun-Hee: For sure. 

선희: 물론

sonhi: mulron.


“I want something” in Korean | Korean FAQ

"Billy, how do I say I want something in Korean?" I often get asked how to say I want something in Korean, and it's not as easy as just replying with the verb "가지고 싶다." There's more you should know about this question. And since it's such a common question, I wanted to discuss not only one way, but several common ways you can use to say this.

The post “I want something” in Korean | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

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Korean Short Story – Learn the language through fun narratives

Are you currently studying Korean and also love to read? Then a Korean short story can be perfect for you! Of course, you may not immediately be reading an entire novel in Korean. However, you can enjoy numerous Korean stories while your Korean reading comprehension skills soar.

This can be one of the most fun and fastest ways to learn Korean – not to mention one of the most valuable methods to do so. So, how do you then get started finding these short stories in the Korean language that is a perfect fit for you? If you keep reading, we’ll let you know!

Korean Short Story

Why should you read short stories in Korean?

There are various reasons why you should add some short stories in Korean into your life.

They are easy to understand

They usually have a plot that’s easier to follow in comparison to a full-fledged novel. Their vocab may be easier to comprehend since many stories are directed towards a young audience. With the help of these stories, you can better understand Korean grammar and the general way of writing. Plus, you’ll get more accustomed to Korean idioms and whatnot!

They are fun to read

Additionally, studying Korean through something imaginative and creative, rather than a traditional school book, is a lot more fun. And on the side, it may easily help you build your creativity in Korean and enhance how you learn by letting you not overthink about it.

You’ll know more about Korea

Not to mention, reading these stories is also its gateway to knowing more about Korean culture – both traditional and modern – and naturally, getting a deeper understanding of the way a Korean person thinks, speaks, and behaves. So, if Korean culture interests you, reading these stories in Korean seems like a must!

How to learn Korean by reading Korean short stories and fairy tales?

Now that you know why you should read these stories, here are some ways to do it.

Choose stories that you know about

If possible, start by reading short stories that you are already familiar with. It is more understandable even if your understanding of Korean isn’t perfect when you already know the characters and what it is about. That way, you can focus on picking up specific vocabulary and grammar structures.

You also will not be met immediately with frustration over understanding the narrative itself and having to stop translating every sentence. You can indeed find some world-famous stories translated into Korean by searching online!

Take notes

Whether the stories you are reading are familiar or new, take some notes. Create a list of Korean words, grammar, phrases, and sentences. These are all incredibly beneficial to write down, even if it may seem like a tedious task. But it will help you remember them better, and not forget them quickly, and you’ll thank yourself for it later.

Once you’ve gone over and translated all that you’ve written down, and spent a little bit of time memorizing them, try reading through the story again. During this review, see how much you understood without the dictionary. It’ll also help you a great deal with your Korean studies if you can officially include reading stories into your Korean routine.

Take it slow

Lastly, although they are called short stories, there is no need to read the whole story in one sitting if it feels too overwhelming, especially for beginners. It is totally fine to read just a little bit each time!

Even if you just read once a week, you’ll have done an excellent reading practice and created huge progress as you learned a lot of new useful and interesting words.

Korean Short Story

Short Story Resources

Reading is the best way to learn languages for some. Here are some links to useful books, sites, and apps with short stories to help you with your Korean studies.

Short Stories in Korean for Intermediate Learners. This resource was put together with Korean learners specifically in mind. It will even develop a word list to speed up your searching up unfamiliar and difficult vocabulary.

Story Korean. On this free website, you can find stories in Korean for both beginner-level and intermediate learners. These stories also come up with a word list and even cultural notes. There are only a few stories on this website, but all of them are popular stories that all Korean children have heard many times as bedtime stories or otherwise.

Beelinguapp. This is a website and application with which you can be studying Korean through reading different texts and stories. It has a couple of cool functions, such as suggesting to you which words you should pay particular attention to and listening to audio as you read the texts in Korean through videos. Whether you’re learning English, Korean, Spanish, or other languages, you can find them here.

Naver Manhwa. Reading Korean webcomics can also be seen as a type of short story. The free Naver website has a huge collection that they post for you to read. As it’s a Korean website for Koreans, it may be a little tougher to navigate, but once you find some cool manhwas to read, you’ll start having a blast.

Korean Comics. This is more of a blog-like website that you can use to read Korean short stories and learn new words and speaking patterns.

You can also refer to our article on Korean children’s books to find something to read. While children’s books and fairy tales are not the same as short stories, it’s an excellent resource to learn the Korean language. After all, even Korean children learn to read Korean by reading these books. You can also access a course on Korean stories by signing up for our 90 Day Korean membership.

Now you know what benefits can come from reading Korean stories and some awesome sites to get started reading them! Have you ever read Korean short stories before? And what kind of stories do you typically like to read? Let us know in the comments!

The post Korean Short Story – Learn the language through fun narratives appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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Eating three of Korea's most famous cup ramen | Go Billy 먹방

Originally I traveled to meet my friend Eui-ju (의주) in order to try out some of the spiciest cup ramen in Korean. But at the store, we made a discovery - Spaghetti Ramen. What is Spaghetti Ramen? How could it actually taste like Spaghetti? It sounded disgusting, and delicious. Well Eui-ju said it was her favorite, so now I had to try it. Quick change of plans! Let's try three popular cup ramen, including Spaghetti Ramen, and talk about how they taste. One of them was such a disappointment, we actually brought in a fourth cup ramen to save the day.

The kinds we tried were 스파게띠 (“Spaghetti”), 열, and 짜파구리. The fourth (spicy) one was 틈새라면.

The post Eating three of Korea's most famous cup ramen | Go Billy 먹방 appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

~내다 "Completing" | Live Class Abridged

The ~내다 form is an intermediate level grammar form that's attached to the end of verbs to mean that something is completed. Specifically, it means that someone completed something by their own effort, and after going through some difficulty.

Last Sunday (1-9-2022) I taught a full classroom about this form live on my YouTube channel. Here's the shortened version of that lesson, at just 10 minutes.

The post ~내다 "Completing" | Live Class Abridged appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

Hallyu – Everything you need to know about the Korean Wave

You might have come across the term “Hallyu” if you have been a fan of South Korean pop culture or South Korean culture in general. In this article, we will tell all there is to know about Hallyu and how it relates to the Korean entertainment and culture that has gained global popularity.


What is Hallyu?

The term “Hallyu” (한류) originated in the Chinese language that translates as “Korean Wave.” It pertains to the popularity Korea’s cultural economy has gained around the world, specifically in terms of K-pop, K-dramas, movies, and other Korean entertainment culture.

Exporting Hallyu, aka exporting South Korea’s popular culture, makes South Korea unique. No other country in the world is as dedicated to making their pop culture one of their leading exports as Korea is, making Hallyu its “soft power.” They want Korean Wave to be the leading popular culture export globally.

Why is Hallyu popular?

Initially, Hallyu reached Japan and mainland China, and after that, it spread to other countries in East and Southeast Asia. These days, especially after K-pop, BTS, Parasite, and Squid Game, Hallyu is beginning to gain popularity worldwide. It is one of Asia’s most significant cultural sensations today and has boosted South Korea’s economy by millions of dollars.

History of Hallyu

Hallyu didn’t just happen overnight and certainly didn’t occur recently. Here are some facts about the history of Hallyu.

When did Hallyu start?

Hallyu was deemed to have started in 1999 when journalists from China first coined the term Hallyu Wave or Korean Wave. With the release of a few TV dramas and movies that gained popularity in Asian countries outside of South Korea. Among these was Autumn in My Heart, Winter Sonata, and My Sassy Girl.

The first movie released under the concept of Hallyu was the 1999 movie called Swiri. The term Hallyu was coined after the successful broadcasting of the 1997 Korean drama What is Love in China.

The spread of the Korean culture abroad

Besides the popularity of the shows themselves, of course, other factors have contributed to or enhanced the Korean wave. Until the early 1990s, Koreans were actually not allowed to leave the country, but once the ban was lifted, it became easier for Korean culture to start spreading abroad.

During the reconstruction of the country’s economy after the Asian financial crisis in the late 1990s, Kim Dae Jung, who was the president at the time, decided to start shaping up the country’s popular culture as the main export. Also, once censorship laws became obsolete, the content in Korean dramas and movies began diversifying, creating more exciting material for people all over Asia to watch. This has definitely helped in boosting the Korean economy.

However, although South Korean media and content are rapidly growing popular abroad, it remains banned or prohibited in North Korea.

The popularity of Korean brands

There have also been a few other reasons that have resulted in Hallyu growing in how it has. For one, the exponential growth in popularity of Korean brands such as Samsung and LG, and Hyundai drew attention toward South Korean products, which opened doors for Hallyu. For another, Korea has put a lot of focused effort into shaping their popular culture into a formidable export.

Continuance of Hallyu

Hallyu has continued to grow and become known globally. Today, the Korean Wave is not only popular in Asian countries, but it has also invaded the majority of the countries in the world. Here are the major reasons why Hallyu continues to gain global recognition and popularity.


Korean Movies

Korean moviemakers especially have drawn together financial resources from outside of Korea to make the movies. This, in turn, helps enhance the quality of the movies Korea puts out to the market, which then helps them gain recognition around the world. Parasite by Korean director Bong Joon Ho is one excellent example of a Korean movie that has become a worldwide phenomenon.

Korean Pop Music

Of course, K-pop music bands have also become a huge thing outside of Korea, gaining millions of K-pop fans in various countries. K-pop is typically seen as the front and center of the Hallyu movement actually. While BTS is undoubtedly the most famous and successful K-Pop idol group performing on the global stage, it is not the first one to succeed.

k-pop group bts

Photo credit:

PSY’s Gangnam Style song was a major hit everywhere in the world and remained one of the most-watched K-Pop songs on YouTube. BoA, idol groups like Super Junior (also dubbed as King of Hallyu Wave), who debuted under SM Entertainment, Big Bang, Girls’ Generation, and Dong Bang Shin Ki (TVXQ), are also a few among many South Korean artists and K-pop groups that have been widely popular in Asian countries. For example, they even make each K-pop song and some albums in the Japanese language.

Korean Dramas

The third major section of Hallyu is Korean dramas. While they were one of the first aspects of Korean culture that became widely popular in some countries at the start of the Korean Wave, overall, they have been slower to reach recognition worldwide. The K-drama Winter Sonata starring Choi Ji Woo and Bae Yong Joon was one of the first dramas that became hugely popular in other Asian countries.

One of the most popular K-dramas was My Love from Another Star among the Chinese. Descendants of the Sun is another example of a K-drama from the past couple of years that was hugely popular all over Asia. Today, thanks to Netflix, global audiences have also gained access to K-dramas, which has led to the creation of the incredibly popular Squid Game and Hellbound.

Korean Government on Hallyu

K-pop culture and the Korean Wave have flourished largely, thanks to the Korean government for allocating resources into these cultural industries. Even events like the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympics help push the Korean Wave forward.

How does the Korean Government support Hallyu?

Since the beginning, Hallyu has been managed in a detailed and structured fashion by the people involved in the entertainment industry. The government’s Ministry of Culture focuses on allocating resources to pop culture, tourism, and sports, among other cultural aspects, and this allows for the entertainment industry to grow.

After all, the Hallyu phenomenon isn’t something that happened by chance. Instead, a lot of focus, planning, and strategy has gone into turning it into a great Korean force.

Determining the target audience

For a start, a lot of time and effort has been placed into studying the target audience in detail. This target audience first and foremost comprises people from other Asian countries. Through this, the industry and the government can gain an understanding of which “products” are the most popular and likely to succeed among those people. And then, of course, the next step is to create those Korean films, TV dramas, and music. Koreans perhaps understand these markets better than anyone else in the world.

Tourism in South Korea

South Korean government and Ministry of Culture have further busied themselves by organizing Korean culture festivals and opening up Korean culture centers in as many countries as 28. The Korea Foundation then provides reports to determine the recipient groups of Hallyu in these countries. All of this has been done to promote K-pop and other aspects of the Korean Wave.

For tourists coming into the country, specific enticing packages with trips to shooting locations, attendance of music events, and so on included have also been created. In Goyang, there is even a theme park called “K-Culture Valley” for tourists coming into the country to discover in detail the Korean popular culture they so love.

This seems to have proven to be effective. More than half of all tourism to Korea today is Hallyu-related, and in general, tourism to Korea has been on the rise. Idol groups and Korean celebrities, such as BTS and the main stars from Squid Game, are becoming superstars like those who star in Hollywood movies, allowing Korea to be included in international film festivals, academy awards, and top the Billboard music awards.

What’s the future of Hallyu like?

Well, for starters, it mostly looks like it will be bright, and the Korean Wave will keep on expanding around the world. However, there will also be challenges present for Hallyu to continue as a profitable export.

There needs to be continuous innovation in music, movies, and dramas to keep audiences excited. Also, the leaders behind Korean Wave need to remain careful that they do not overexpose the K-Pop stars and film celebrities so that audiences, Korean and otherwise, don’t get tired of them. And of course, ultimately, the Korean government will also have to keep supporting K-Pop and other parts of the wave for innovation and projects to keep going.

Squid Game Casts

Photo credit:

It can also be expected that many more popular Korean dramas and movies will continue to be turned into remakes in the U.S. and other countries. Some TV shows like The Good Doctor, and movies like A Tale of Two Sisters, have already been remade. And now there are talks about Squid Game getting the same treatment, too!

The Hallyu effect in South Korea today

Just ten years ago, many people, especially in the Western countries, seemed to know little about South Korea besides Korean War. Furthermore, they may not even have been able to differentiate which country is which!

A positive impression on Korea

But today, if you ask someone what comes to mind when you mention South Korea, you’re more likely to hear answers like BTS, Parasite, Squid Game, or popular South Korean restaurants and Korean food, among other options. So not only has Hallyu put South Korea on the world map, so to speak, but it has also turned its image from something negative and war-ridden to something positive and modern.

A growing interest in anything Korean

Hallyu has launched South Korea into stardom of sorts, with tourists flooding in to visit South Korea as of late. And it is quite impressive what measures the country has gone into to make themselves such a force to be reckoned with their pop culture.

Today, even the Korean language, cosmetics, online gaming, all sorts of Korean entertainment, and Korean cuisine are considered part of the Korean Wave. The rise of the Korean Wave has even spilled over to the fashion world. Some female celebrities are becoming fashion icons, not to mention getting invited to the world’s leading fashion events.

With the recent successes in the arenas of TV shows, movies, and music, one can only get excited about what Hallyu has in store for the future in South Korean popular culture. We’ll also remain hopeful that the masterminds behind its global success will find ways to retain its authenticity for years to come so that the scene remains as fruitful and exciting as it is today.

Have you heard of the term Hallyu before? Is it among the reasons why you started learning Korean? Who are your favorite Hallyu stars? Let us know in the comments below! Also, if you are interested in deep diving further into popular culture in Korea, don’t forget to look up our articles on K Pop, Korean TV dramas, and Korean movies.

The post Hallyu – Everything you need to know about the Korean Wave appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

Samnon-jong – East Asian Mādhyamaka: 삼론종

Kumārajīva (344-413 A.D.), the Patriarch of Samnon-jong Buddhism (Picture Courtesy of this Website).

The Beopseong sect, as the name hints at, attempts to clarify the meaning of various dharmas. The Beopseong sect used the Three Treatises as their primary texts. These three texts are: 1. The Middle Treatise – Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, 2. The Treatise on the Twelve Gates – Dvādaśadvāraśāstra, 3. The Hundred Verse Treatise – Śataśāstra. As a result, the Beopseong sect is also sometimes called the Three Treatises School, or the “Samnon-jong” in Korean.

One of the main focuses of the Samnon-jong sect, which is known as the “Buddha Nature” in English, focuses on how it’s possible for sentient beings to attain the state of a Buddha. This is a central topic in Mahayana Buddhism. So one of the meanings of the term “Buddha Nature” is that all sentient beings contain an enlightened Buddha within themselves. Another approach to the idea of “Buddha Nature” is the idea that allows for the enabling of sentient beings to become Buddhas. Debate continues to this day on what the “Buddha Nature” means, and it plays a major role in doctrinal Mahayana Buddhism.

With this in mind, the Samnon-jong (Buddha Nature) sect sharply criticized the Smaller Vehicle – Hinayana Buddhism. The reason for this is that the Samnon-jong sect believed that the Smaller Vehicle served no purpose. The Samnon-jong sect considered the idea of emptiness found in Prajnaparamita (the Perfection of [Transcendent] Wisdom) as corresponding perfectly to the ultimate end, or “Gugyeong” in Korean. That’s why the Samnon-jong sect is also known as the Emptiness of Nature Sect, or “Seonggong-jong” in Korean.

So how did Samnon Buddhism first develop? In China, during the reign of Emperor Yao Chang (r. 384-394 A.D.) of Later Qin, a monk from Kucha named Kumārajīva (344-413 A.D.) followed Lü Guang (337-400 A.D.) to Liangzhou and reached Changan in 400 A.D. Kumārajīva immediately started to translate Buddhist sutras. Among the 380 sutras that he translated, the Śataśāstra was completed in 404 A.D. And the other two sutras, the Mūlamadhyamakakārikā and the Dvādaśadvāraśāstra, were both completed in 410 A.D. It was from these sutras, and their translations, that a sect was founded. But not only was it founded, but it began to flourish right away, as well. Kumarajiva became the first patriarch of the sect.

With all that being said, it’s unclear how this sect first came to the Korean peninsula. Also, it’s impossible to know the person that first expounded and taught these teachings, as well. However, it can safely be assumed that because of the proximity of Northern China (which is where Sanlun Buddhism was first founded and developed) to the Korean peninsula, that it was transmitted through trade and cultural exchanges. And because Sanlun Buddhism passed through the Korean peninsula to arrive in Japan, which it did as Sanron Buddhism in 625 A.D., Sanlun Buddhism was already present in the Three Kingdoms of Korea (18 B.C. – 660 A.D.) at this time. With this in mind, and without being able to be more specific, Sanlun Buddhism is believed to have first been introduced around the time other sects arrived on the Korean peninsula from Tang China (618–690, 705–907 A.D.) like Huayan and Vinaya Buddhism. Additionally, the Hwaeom-jong sect and Samnon-jong sect were believed to have strong ties. Later, and at the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), the Samnon-jong sect was unified with the Jungdo sect, and it became the Jungsin sect. This sect continued to use the same doctrinal content of the Three Treatises.

The Three Kingdoms (18 B.C. – 660 A.D.) in 476 A.D. (Picture Courtesy of Wikipedia).


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