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Botapsa Temple – 보탑사 (Jincheon, Chungcheongbuk-do)

The Three-Story Wooden Pagoda Main Hall at Botapsa Temple in Jincheon, Chungcheongbuk-do.

Temple History

Botapsa Temple is located in Yeongok-ri in Jincheon, Chungcheongbuk-do. The name Yeongok means “lotus flower” in Korean. And the reason that the area is called this is because of the nine peaks surrounding the area, which resembles a lotus flower. As for the temple name, it means “Jewel Pagoda Temple” in English.

The present temple is located on a former temple site that was long thought to have been one of the largest temples built during the Three Kingdoms of Korea (18 B.C – 660 A.D.) and through to the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). More recently, and in 1988, a three-story wooden pagoda was built on the temple grounds. This large Dharma Hall was built in the tradition of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and it was modeled after the nine-story wooden pagoda of the historic Hwangnyongsa Temple in Gyeongju. The three-story wooden pagoda now housed at the modern Botapsa Temple stands 42.73 metres in height, and the wooden pagoda is meant to symbolize a lotus flower for the wishes of the reunification of the Korean peninsula.

Also of note, Botapsa Temple is located near the home where Gen. Kim Yusin (595-673 A.D.) was born. The temple is also home to Stele of Yeongok-ri, which is Korean Treasure #404.

Temple Layout

When you first approach the temple grounds from the temple parking lot, you’ll first encounter the Cheonwangmun Gate. The exterior walls to this entry gate are adorned with beautiful pine tree and lotus flower murals. Housed inside the Cheonwangmun Gate are the Four Heavenly Kings. All four of these statues are newly designed. Continuing to climb the stone stairs, you’ll pass by a pair of pavilions on your way towards the main temple courtyard at Botapsa Temple. The pavilion to the left is known as the Beomjong-gak Pavilion. Housed inside this pavilion is a beautiful Brahma Bell. And the pavilion to the right is known as the Beomgo-gak Pavilion. Housed inside this pavilion are the Dharma Drum, the Wooden Fish Drum, and the Cloud Plate Drum. All three Buddhist percussion instruments are beautiful in design.

Having passed by these two pavilions, and climbed the last few stairs, you’ll now be standing squarely in the main temple courtyard. And the most obvious of shrine halls is the three-story Dharma Hall. The exterior walls are painted with traditional dancheong colours with Narayeon Geumgang and Miljeok Geumgang (Heng and Ha) murals painted around the second story of the structure. Stepping inside the wooden pagoda, you’ll find a four-sided main altar. And the four sided main altar are occupied by four different triads. The triad to the east is occupied by Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise). This central image is joined on either side by Ilgwang-bosal (The Sun Bodhisattva) and Wolgwang-bosal (The Moon Bodhisattva). The triad on the main altar to the west is centred by Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). This central image is joined by two standing images of Daesaeji-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Power for Amita-bul) and Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). On the north side of the main altar, you’ll find Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy), who is joined by Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power) and Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom). And on the south side of the main altar, you’ll find a triad centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). This four-sided main altar surrounds a large centre column in which the partial cremated remains of the Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul, are enshrined.

The second story of the three-story wooden pagoda is known as the Beopbo-jeon Hall. On this second story, you’ll find a handful of highly intricate Yunjangdae (Revolving Scriptures Library Pillar). Housed inside the Yungjangdae are the Lotus Sutra. And the third story of the structure is the Mireuk-jeon Hall. Housed on this floor is a standing Mireuk-bul (Future Buddha) triad.

To the left of the three-story Dharma Hall is the hexagonal Yeongsan-jeon Hall. This plainly painted exterior houses a six-sided interior that houses the five hundred Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha) on artificial mountainous altars. And in the centre of these artificial outcropping is the central main altar that houses a solitary image of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha).

To the left of the Yeongsan-jeon Hall, and through a forested pathway, you’ll exit on the other side of a clearing. In the forested area, you’ll find a modern three-story black brick pagoda with a golden finial atop it. And in the clearing, you’ll find the Stele of Yeongok-ri. The stele rests under a protective wooden pavilion. The purpose of this stele, unfortunately, is unknown as there is no inscription on it. Additionally, it’s never been proven that there ever was an inscription on this stele. The base of a traditional stele is typically a tortoise; however, the face to the base of this stele looks more like a horse. As for the capstone of the stele, there are nine dragons engraved realistically with masterful masonry skills. It’s believed that the Stele of Yeongok-ri dates back to the early Goryeo Dynasty.

Back at the Dharma Hall, and behind the three-story wooden pagoda, you’ll find the temple’s Jijang-jeon Hall. Above the three entry doors to this temple shrine hall, you’ll find three beautiful murals. One is dedicated to the Banya Yongseon-do (Dragon Ship of Wisdom), the other to the redemptive Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise), and the final to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). Stepping inside the cavernous Jijang-jeon Hall, you’ll find the long main altar occupied by a golden-capped Jijang-bosal.

And to the right rear of the Jijang-jeon Hall, you’ll find the Sanshin-gak Hall, which looks like a log cabin. Unfortunately, this shaman shrine hall was locked when I visited. Not sure why. But housed inside the Sanshin-gak Hall is a solitary painting dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit).

The final temple shrine hall that visitors can explore at Botapsa Temple is the Jeokjo-jeon Hall to the right of the three-story main hall. The exterior walls to this shrine hall are adorned with the Palsang-do (The Eight Scenes from the Buddha’s Life). And the front doors are adorned with a colour collection of doors with Ggotsalmun (Flower Latticework Doors).

How To Get There

From the Jincheon Bus Terminal, you can take one of two buses. You can take either Bus #196 or Bus #231. If you take Bus #196, it’ll take you 35 minutes, or 20 stops. The bus will let you off at the “Botapsa – 보탑사” bus stop. From where it lets you off, you’ll need to walk about 5 minutes, or 300 metres, to get to Botapsa Temple.

And if you decide to take Bus #231, it’ll take 50 minutes, or 25 stops. It’ll let you off at the “Botapsa – 보탑사” bus stop, as well. And again, you’ll need to walk about 5 minutes, or 300 metres, to get to Botapsa Temple. It should be noted that neither of these buses comes all that often.

And if public transportation isn’t your thing, you can simply take a taxi from the Jincheon Bus Terminal. The taxi ride will take about 20 minutes, and it’ll cost you 17,500 won (one way).

Overall Rating: 8/10

It’s not hard to figure out that the main attraction at Botapsa Temple is the three-story Dharma Hall. And rather amazingly, you can visit all three floors. The first floor is the most beautiful with the four-sided main altar. But all three floors are beautiful. But outside the main attraction, there is plenty of other things to enjoy at Botapsa Temple like the historic Stele of Yeongok-ri, the log cabin-like Sanshin-gak Hall, and the hexagonal Yeongsan-jeon Hall. While rather remote, Botapsa Temple is definitely worth a visit.

A look towards the Cheonwangmun Gate.
The beautiful lotus flower mural that adorns the exterior of the Cheonwangmun Gate.
A look inside the Cheonwangmun Gate at two of the Four Heavenly Kings.
A look past the Beomjong-gak Pavilion (left) and the hidden Beomgo-gak Pavilion towards the main temple courtyard.
A look inside the Beomgo-gak Pavilion.
The amazing three-story wooden pagoda main hall at Botapsa Temple.
One of the four-sided main altars inside the main hall. This is the south side with the central image of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha).
A look up the central column from the north side of the main altar.
The second-story of the main hall with one of a handful of Yunjangdae (Revolving Scriptures Library Pillar).
The hexagonal Yeongsan-jeon Hall at Botapsa Temple.
The horse-like head of the Stele of Yeongok-ri, which is Korean Treasure #404.
The Jijang-jeon Hall.
The log cabin-like Sanshin-gak Hall.
The floral latticework that adorns the Jeokjo-jeon Hall.
And one more look up at the beautiful wooden pagoda Dharma Hall.

Verb Endings ~네(요), ~지(요), ~나(요), ~군(요) | Live Class Abridged

Sunday we had a live Korean classroom about verb endings. These are some of the most commonly used verb endings, and they each have unique uses.

We learned about the verb endings ~네(요), ~지(요), ~나(요) or ~가(요), ~(는)군(요), and ~(는)구나. The full live stream was over an hour and a half, but the shortened version here is just 15 minutes.

The post Verb Endings ~네(요), ~지(요), ~나(요), ~군(요) | Live Class Abridged appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

 Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean





Korean writing – How to form syllable blocks and words

Korean writing at first glance may appear to be similar to Chinese or Japanese, especially if this is a new language to you. But upon a closer look, especially with a piece of text by each language placed next to each other, it’s easy to see Korean is quite different, after all.

Some may even be mind blown when they realize the Korean language isn’t written by characters but with their own alphabetic system. This can certainly gain one’s interest in how the Korean writing system works.

This article aims to offer you an overview of how to write Korean words and, eventually, full sentences to help with your Korean fluency.

Introduction to the Korean writing system

Thankfully, compared to Japanese and Chinese, Korean is much easier to learn. Instead of characters like in Chinese, or a combination of writing systems like in Japanese, the Korean language has a set of alphabets they use for everything, and that’s it. It should only take you a few hours at most to memorize each letter!

The Korean alphabet

The Korean alphabet is comprised of consonants and vowels. There are 14 Korean consonants and 10 Korean vowels, plus some additional combinations.

If Korean is a new language to you, you should start by learning the Korean alphabet together with us. Even if you have to go check out the Korean alphabet article first, don’t fret – it only takes a little bit of your time to learn Hangeul, and then you can come back here!

Hangeul stroke order

If you’ve already concluded that step and learned about the stroke order, you can continue diving deeper into the Korean writing system.

As you learn Hangul, do take the time to learn the specific stroke order of each letter. After that, you’ll finally be ready to practice more aspects of the Korean writing system with us in this article!


Korea also uses Chinese characters, called hanja, in the Korean language, but they are not used as widely. You may want to learn them for fun, but they’re not essential for survival.

Korean syllable blocks

Korean writing is done through syllable blocks. That means that while each Korean or Hangul alphabet is its own letter, none of them appear alone. Instead, two or more of the alphabet letters are constructed into one block. Therefore, each Korean word also comprises one or more Korean syllables.

Basic rules of forming Korean syllables

There are numerous ways each letter can be combined into a syllable. However, there are certain rules for constructing the letters within a syllable.

Start with a consonant

The first rule of thumb is that each syllable block begins with a consonant. This means that when the syllable technically only consists of a vowel, it gets combined together with the letter ㅇ, so the first letter is still a consonant—for example, the Korean vowel ㅏis not written as ㅏ but as 아.

Although the letter ㅇ normally has an “ng” sound, in these instances, it’s quiet and simply added there due to the Korean writing rules. Of course, no syllable can exist without at least one vowel included, either.

Consider the vowel placement

The way each syllable is constructed depends on the vowel used. If it’s a vertical vowel, in other words, ㅣ, ㅏ, ㅓ, and so on, then the initial consonant is placed on the left side of the vowel.

If the vowel is horizontal, so ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅗ, and so on, then the first consonant should be placed above the vowel. Additionally, it is possible to have one final consonant, two final consonants, or none. Below we have illustrated possible block combinations of syllables.

It is not formed in a horizontal line

To illustrate further, when you write using Latin characters and many otherworldly languages, you will simply place each letter in a sequence. Like this:

K + O + R + E + A = Korea.

However, in the Korean language, you will have to place them into specific blocks, which together then form the word.

So, in the case of the same word, but in Korean, it would look like this:

ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄴ ㄱ + ㅜ + ㄱ = 한국.

This is an excellent example of forming the block both using a vertical vowel and a horizontal vowel.

As you may notice, writing it as ㅎㅏㄴㄱㅜㄱ wouldn’t even make any sense. Therefore, using Korean syllable blocks to write comprehensively makes the most sense.

How to easily create Korean syllable blocks?

Now that we have covered the basic rules of writing syllables, it’s time to start looking at practical examples of them. By learning Korean and practicing this, you establish a great foundation of Korean writing skills.

Step 1: Figure out which vowel you are using

As the vowel used in the syllable determines the placement of the consonants, this is your starting point for building one. Are you using a horizontal or vertical vowel?

Step 2: Figure out whether your syllable ends with a vowel or a consonant

If the syllable ends with a vowel, you will only need two letters to complete it. However, if you add one or two consonants after the vowel, you need to leave space for them below the first two letters in the syllable.

Step 3: Create the syllable block

Now that you have determined the ingredients of the syllable block, you can “fill-in-the-blanks,” so to speak. Note that English and other language sounds are unreliable for telling you how each block should be formed. Hence, it’s best for you to master Korean pronunciation while forming syllables.

How to practice writing Korean syllable blocks?

Now that you know the rules for writing a word and have a step-by-step guide for creating them, it’s time to start your writing practice!

First and foremost, practice reading and writing syllables with only one consonant and vowel, as presented below. This is how Korean children learn to read and write, too.

Initial ConsonantSyllables
파퍄퍼펴포표 푸퓨프피

Writing words with one syllable

Of course, many blocks of syllables include 3 or even 4 letters. You can practice forming these blocks first for one-syllable words before moving on to more complex ones. Below are a few examples.

EnglishHangeul syllables formedRomanization
Rainㅂ + ㅣ = 비 bi
Dogㄱ + ㅐ = 개gae
Secondㅊ + ㅗ = 초cho
Doorㅁ + ㅜ + ㄴ = 문mun
Horseㅁ + ㅏ + ㄹ = 말mal
Whyㅇ + ㅙ = 왜wae
Leafㅇ + ㅣ + ㅍ = 잎ip
Chickenㄷ + ㅏ + ㄹ + ㄱ = 닭dal

In the case of the last word, chicken, you may have noticed we also come across some specific pronunciation rules. When there are two final consonants, one may become a silent one, as in this example.

However, the pronunciation also depends on which syllable follows it. Thus, depending on the word as a whole, the ㄱ may also become audible while ㄹ will become silent, or they may both get pronounced! You can start learning Korean pronunciation with our guide, which has been linked above.

Writing words with 2 or more syllables

Next, let’s go over some longer words for practice.

EnglishHangeul syllables formed Romanization
Bedroomㅊ + ㅣ + ㅁ + ㅅ +ㅣ + ㄹ = 침실chimsil
Laptopㄴ + ㅗ + ㅌ + ㅡ + ㅂ + ㅜ + ㄱ = 노트북noteubuk
Penguinㅍ + ㅔ + ㄴ + ㄱ + ㅟ + ㄴ = 펜귄pengwin
To eatㅁ + ㅓ + ㄱ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 먹다meokda
To borrowㅂ + ㅣ + ㄹ + ㄹ + ㅣ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 빌리다billida
To prepareㅈ + ㅜ + ㄴ + ㅂ + ㅣ + ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 준비하다junbihada
To likeㅈ + ㅗ + ㅎ + ㅇ + ㅏ + ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 좋아하다joahada
To dislikeㅅ + ㅣ + ㄹ + ㅎ + ㅇ + ㅓ + ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 싫어하다sileohada

By now, you should be properly familiar with the Korean alphabet and forming syllables and Korean words too. If you are also well-versed in pronouncing Korean words, then creating those syllables presented above should be easy.

Next up in your road towards Korean fluency is writing practice on those syllable blocks! Perhaps you could do so with the help of our most common Korean words -article? Also, let us know what you thought of the Korean way to construct syllable blocks in the comments!

The post Korean writing – How to form syllable blocks and words appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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More on Sanctions against Russia: Yes, Sanctions are Blunt and Limited, but Our Options are Limited; a No-Fly Zone would be very Risky

SanctionsThis is a re-post of something I wrote recently at on sanctioning Russia. It pulls from Twitter debates on Russian sanctions I’ve gotten tangled up in (here, here, here).

So everybody agrees that sanctions are a blunt tool. And everybody also agrees that sanctions don’t ‘work’ if you insist that they should achieve some enormous goal like pushing Russia out of Ukraine or denuclearizing North Korea. And it’s probably true that the US particularly overuses sanctions. And finally, it’s common to blame sanctions for humanitarian impacts (although I’d argue that’s more because of internal allocative decisions in the target states, but that’s a debate for another time).

So everybody agrees they kinda suck. So why do we do them? Because they are often a middle option between dovish diplomacy and the hawkish use of force:

Diplomacy is ideal, and in some cases like the Iran deal, it appears to have worked. Trump dumping that deal for sanctions was a mistake. But in tough cases like NK WMD or Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, diplomacy seems like too weak a response. NK has a long history of gaming talks to buy time to build its WMD, and it’s pretty clear in Ukraine that Russia is seeking a battlefield solution. So yes, let’s keep talking, but tougher cases probably require a bit of steel in the glove.

The use of force is too much steel in the glove though in most cases. An no-fly zone over Ukraine is a step toward NATO-Russian war, as just about everyone now grasps. Denuclearizing NK by force would likely start another war.

So yeah, sanctions are unsatisfying, but we wind up there, because other options are often worse. Here is that 1945 essay:

The Limits on Sanctions against Russia – The Russian invasion of Ukraine is bogging down. Russia’s poor tactical performance and severe logistical snarls have surprised much of the world, including Putin himself apparently. The Ukrainians are fighting better and harder than expected. Ukraine’s civilian population is rising up. We have all seen videos of regular Ukrainians yelling at Russian soldiers or making Molotov cocktails.

This war is not the blitzkrieg Putin hoped for. Ukraine will not consensually join a Russian sphere of influence. Resistance is widespread, and Russia will need to leave an occupation army for some time if it hopes to solidify its gains. Hence, even if the Ukrainian military is defeated on the battlefield – which is still probable –a Ukrainian insurgency seems likely.

Please read the rest here.

Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University




how to say the seven Days of the Week in Korean ?

The Korean word for days of the week is 요일 (yo-il). To say all Korean days of the week, all you have to do is memorize "wol-hwa-su-mok-geum-to-il”( 월-화-수-목-금-토-일 ) and add “요일”(yo-il) at the end.

Here's the structure

월/화/수/목/금/토/일(wol-hwa-su-mok-geum-to-il) + 요일(yo-il)

If you want to know how to say the first days of the workweek i.e. Monday in Korean, it's 월요일.(월(wol) + 요일 (yo-il).Here is how to say Monday to Sunday in Korean (all seven days of the week in Korean )

  • Monday in korean - 월요일( wol-yo-il) – 월(wol) + 요일 (yo-il)
  • Tuesday in korean - 화요일(hwa-yo-il) – 화 (hwa) + 요일(yo-il)
  • Wednesday in korean–    수요일(su-yo-il) – 수(su) + 요일 (yo-il)
  • Thursday in korean–     목요일(mok-yo-il) – 목(mok) + 요일(yo-il)
  • Friday in korean –        금요일(geum-yo-il) – 금(geum) + 요일 (yo-il)
  • Saturday in korean-      토요일(to-yo-il)– 토(to) + 요일(yo-il)
  • Sunday in korean - 일요일 (il-yo-il)– 일(il)+ 요일 (yo-il)

Korean Days Of The Week Meaning: The Secret Behind Each Day Of The Week.

The meaning of the days of the week in Korean is based on the five elements of nature in Chinese culture(fire, water, wood, gold, earth) plus the moon and sun. Monday means moon, Tuesday means fire, Wednesday & Thursday means water and wood, Friday represents gold, while Saturday and Sunday each represent land(soil) and Day.

Here is the complete list of hanja of 7 days of the week with its meanings, hanja, and pronunciation.

  • Monday means -월 (wol) means “moon” and the Hanja is 月
  • Tuesday means- (hwa) means “fire” and the Hanja is 火
  • Wednesday means- (su) means “water”  and the Hanja is 水
  • Thursday means- 목 (mok)  means  “wood “ and the Hanja is 木
  • Friday means – 금 (geum) means “gold “and the Hanja is 金
  • Saturday means – 토 (tho)  means “earth” and the Hanja is 土
  • Sunday means – 일 (il)  means “sun” and the Hanja is 日

Well, apparently it’s a historical thing.

and What’s really interesting is that Korean days of the week are named after some Chinese characters (based on Chinese astrology, which is just plain old weird). So naturally, each of these words has a meaning! 

important tips

In Korean, you cannot use these Korean words “wol-hwa-su-mok-geum-to-il” (월화수목금토일) on their own like

Sunday in Korean is 일요일. But 일 can also mean the sun and the day. So to say “sun in korean” you should use태양 (tae-yang) not 일(il).

How To Ask A Question About Korean Days Of The Week (& Answer It)?

Congrats! Now you can say Korean days of the week. why not try to ask about it  

Here is how 

Let’s make some simple sentences 

Asking for days of the week formally

  • What day is it today?

오늘 무슨 요일이에요?

  • Today is thursday

오늘은 목요일이에요.oneureun mogyoirieyo

Asking for days of the week in Korean in a causal way( talking with close friends or younger than you)

  • What day is it tomorrow?

내일 무슨 요일이야?naeil museun yoiriya

  • Tomorrow is friday.

내일은 금요일이야.naeileun geumyoiriya

  • What day is July 4th? 

7월 4일이 무슨 요일입니까?-chil wol sa iri museun yoirimnikka?

  • July 4th is monday.

7월 4일은 월요일입니다.- chil wol sa ireun woryoirimnida

How Do You Say Today In Korean?

The basic way to say today in Korean 오늘 [oh-neul].but the words 금일 (geumil), 요즘 (yojeum), and 오늘날 (one ullal) also mean the today in Korean.

however, it depends on the meaning you want to express like 

The word “요즘 (yojeum)” literally means “present day,” but When talking about the present vs. the past, it is usually used as “today”. Just Use it as an adverb or noun, and place it at the beginning of a sentence.

Sample Sentences Using Today in Korean

• Today is Tuesday, right?

오늘이 화요일 맞지? – oneuri hwayoil matjji

• What did you do today?

오늘뭐했어? – oh-neul mwo haesso?

• I just got paid today. I’ll treat you to dinner tonight.

난 오늘 월급받았어. 오늘 저녁은 내가 살게.

nan oneul wolkkeupppadasso. oneul jonyogeun naega salge

• Are you busy today?

오늘 바쁘세요?- oneul bappeuseyo

How To Say Tomorrow In Korean Language?

Here is how to say “Tomorrow” in Korean, which is 내일 (naeil). But sometimes Koreans also use two other words i.e. 장래 (jangnae) and 명일 (myeongil). 

내일 (naeil) and 명일 (myeongil) are the same. The only difference is that 명일 (myeongil) comes from China and is rarely used in everyday conversation (used for official and academic purposes)

Now let’s make some simple sentences

• Tomorrow is Friday.

내일은 금요일이에요-naeireun geumyoirieyo

• I have a piano lesson tomorrow.

난 내일 피아노 교습이 있어. – nan naeil piano gyoseubi isso

• See you tomorrow

내일 보자 -naeil boja

How To Say Yesterday In Korean Language?

Yesterday is a bit difficult word to translate into Korean. 

The word 어제 (eoje), literally translated as yesterday in Korean. But there’s another way to say yesterday which is 작일 (jagil). The only difference between This word 작일 (jagil) and 어제 (eoje) is 작일 (jagil) loan word from Chinese and only used in academics.

So, Let’s dive deeper with examples, shall we?  


• Isn’t it cold yesterday?

어제는 춥지 않니?- eojeneun chubji anhni?

• It snowed a lot yesterday.

어제 눈이 많이 왔어요.-oje nuni mani wassoyo

How To Count Weeks In Korean ? The Correct Way

To count weeks in Korean, you first need to use the Sino Korean numbers and add 주/주일 (Chu /Chu-eel) at the end. Both 주일 or 주 mean the same thing when you’re talking about two or three weeks, but Korean people prefer to use 주 for four weeks and up. 

Here’s the structure to count weeks in Korean : 

Sino Korean numbers + 주/주일(Chu /Chu-eel)

Here is how to count weeks in Korean language with translation and pronunciation.

• one week –일주일-iljuil 

• two weeks – 이 주일 (이 주*)-  I-chu-il          

• three weeks – 삼 주일 (삼 주*) – Sam-chu-il

• four weeks -사 주 – Sa-chu-il

• five weeks – 오 주 – O-chu-il

• six weeks – 육 주 – Yuk-chu-il

• seven weeks – 칠 주 – Chil-chu-il

• eight weeks – 팔 주 – Pal-chu-il

Weekly/every week- 매주 (mae-ju)

• Weekend in Korean – 주말 (ju-mal)

• Weekday in Korean -평일 (pyeong-il)

• Once a week – 일주일에 한번(iljuire hanbon)

• twice a week-일주일에 두 번-iljuire du bon

• Once every four weeks – 4주에 한 번-sa jue han bon

• This week- 이번주 (i-beon-ju)

• Last week – 지난주 (ji-nan-ju)

• Next week – 다음주 (da-eum-ju)

• On the weekend – 주말에-jumare

• During the week – 주말 동안-jumal dongan

• The Week before last- 지지난주 (ji-ji-nan-ju)

• The Week after next week – 다다음주 (da-da-eum-ju)

• This Friday – 이번 금요일- ibon geumyoil

• Next Sunday -다음 일요일- daeum iryoil

• Monday evening -월요일 저녁-woryoil jonyok

• Friday night – 금요일 밤- geumyoil bam

• Thursday morning – 목요일 아침- mogyoil achim

• Last Tuesday – 지난 화요일-jinan hwayoil

• every Tuesday – 매주 화요일-maeju hwayoil

• Next weekend – 다음 주말-daeum jumal

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Religion in Korea – The modern and traditional beliefs

In this article, we will discuss Religion in Korea including the past and present religions on the Korean peninsula. An interesting fact about the Korean nation is that, unlike many other countries in the world, it does not have an official state religion.

That’s just one of the facts about religions in Korea and we’ll be learning more below. Hopefully, this topic is both educational and fun for you!

What is the traditional religion in South Korea?

Around more than half of Koreans have no religious affiliation, while the rest profess affiliation to one – or more – of the religions present in South Korean culture today. This means that there’s no dominant religion in the country. Instead, there is plenty of room for many of the world’s major religions to exist simultaneously.

The specific numbers change depending on the source and year of research you refer to. Of the traditional religions, Shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism have the oldest roots in traditional Korean culture. All of them have also had a large cultural influence in Korea and impacted Korean society as a whole, beyond religious beliefs.

Korean Buddhism (불교)

Buddhism 불교 (bulgyo) arrived in Korea in 372 from China and was predominant during the Three Kingdoms period. It was a dominant religious influence that has been shaping the country since then, evidenced by the tens of thousands of temples built across Korea.

Buddhism was also the major religion on the peninsula until Confucianism was founded and considered as the state ideology of the Joseon dynasty. Confucian scholars strongly opposed any efforts to revive Buddhism during this time. Buddhism in Korea evolved slightly into its own form, Korean Buddhism because the monks felt there were some inconsistencies in the “original” version of Buddhism (Mahayana Buddhism) that was brought into the country.

Korean Confucianism (유교)

Confucianism 유교 (yugyo), on the other hand, was born during the Joseon dynasty when it was developed by Korean intellectuals, and was the biggest religion for the Koreans for centuries, until the introduction of Christianity.

More so than a religion, Confucian values are viewed as an ethical and moral code by South Koreans and were an important part of the government systems. It especially emphasizes filial piety, loyalty, and ancestor worship. It can be said that of all the different religions in Korea, Confucianism was stronger over South Koreans throughout time.

Korean Shamanism (샤만교)

Shamanism 샤만교 (syamangyo) has also been present in South Korean culture since ancient times and has played a significant role in shaping up daily life in South Korea. Shamanistic beliefs have existed in Korea since its founding back in 2333 BC. Until the introduction of Confucianism and Buddhism, it was the sole religion on the Korean peninsula.

Upon the arrival of the two other religions, Korean Shamanism took more of a backseat position. Despite that, it is still surprisingly influential in Korea even today. Meaning, while Korean Shamanism has all but disappeared in other regions upon the introduction of major religions like Buddhism, it has persisted to exist on the peninsula.

Koreans usually visit shamans for advice, perform rituals for good fortune, or ask for talismans to drive away evil spirits from human beings in the natural world. Female shamans are also prevalent in this Korean tradition.

Korean Shamanism

Modern-day religion in South Korea

Although Buddhism and Confucianism remain large religions in the modern society of Korea today, with various different factions of Buddhism being practiced among the South Korean Buddhists, there is another big religion present as well.

Christianity (기독교)

Christianity 기독교 (gidokgyo), or more specifically, Protestantism has gone major in Korea. This was mainly after the Korean War and with the arrival of American missionaries and Catholic priests to the country. Catholicism was also introduced to Korean culture during the Joseon dynasty, though far later than Confucianism.

Initially, the Korean government at the time prohibited Christianity, as the Catholic converts did not want to follow Confucian rituals. Christians lived in the north where Confucian influence was lesser compared to the south. It was later followed by persecution of Roman Catholics, though the anti-Christian law wasn’t strictly enforced.

However, the introduction of Protestantism and Protestant churches, and then the times after World War II, quickly transformed Christianity into the biggest religion in South Korea. This also results in most Christians belonging to Protestant denominations in South Korea.

Why is Christianity popular in Korea?

Christianity has become hugely popular in Korea. Here are a few reasons why.

They place high regard on education and medical services

The first Protestant Korean church was founded in the year of 1897. They quickly gained the interest of Korean people through their services in the medical and educational fields as they established schools and hospitals. Even in today’s South Korea you can find numerous schools (from middle school to university) and medical centers that have direct ties to Protestantism.

This is one reason why Protestantism and Christianity, in general, are seen as such a formidable force in Korea. It has also been statistically proven that, among all the different religious groups in Korea, those of the Catholic faith tend to educate themselves highest. Catholic Church was also the first religious institution that adopted Hangul into official use, and it was mandatory for all of the children to learn.

The nationalism of Korean Christians

A clear sign of Christianity’s popularity is the number of Protestant missionaries coming from the country. Only the U.S. has more missionaries worldwide than South Korea does. One of the most significant factors for Christianity’s popularity lies in Korean nationalism, during a trying time when the Koreans were under Japanese rule, and groups of Christians would show resistance against the Japanese.

Religion in North Korea

Other religions in Korea

Various other religions also exist in Korea. This includes major world religions like Islam led by the first Korean imam in 1955. There were also local religions, some of them are Won Buddhism, Cheondogyo, and Daejonggyo.

Won Buddhism is a modern religion that is considered reformed Buddhism. Cheondogyo was founded on the basis of Eastern learning which goes in contrast with Western Learning. On the other hand, Daejonggyo was created to worship, Dangun, the founder of the first Korean state. Daoism has also been active in Korea at some points in history.

How do religions affect Korean culture?

These religions in general can clearly be seen in daily South Korean life. For example, the aforementioned schools and medical centers with Protestant affiliations. Big exams and events are typically preceded by Buddhist prayer practices and rituals, and Buddha’s birthday is a national holiday celebrated in the country.

And of course, the major holidays Lunar New Year and Chuseok have deep traditions deriving from Korean Buddhism practices. Herbal remedies and some ritualistic-looking dances, which have roots in Shamanism, can still be seen used in traditional settings today.

Religion in North Korea

Much like South Koreans, North Korean people also follow Buddhism, Confucianism, and Christianity as their primary religions. However, due to the government discouraging any religious practices by organized groups, these religions are hardly ever practiced. Even so, the country claims to technically have freedom of religion.

Although 300 Buddhist temples exist in North Korea, they are seen more as cultural relics, rather than as places for worship. Some religious educational programs and colleges also exist, but their graduates commonly find work within the field of foreign trade, rather than in religion.

What is the top religion or belief systems in your country? Is it similar or different to Korea’s religious systems? We’d also love to know in the comments you telling us a little bit about your religion – in the Korean language, of course! You can also read our article dedicated to the vocabulary on religion in Korean if you’d like to improve your Korean skills!

The post Religion in Korea – The modern and traditional beliefs appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

Jogye Order – 조계종

The Symbol of the Jogye Order

History of the Jogye Order

The Jogye Order, which is officially known as the “Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism” in English, has its roots in the Seonjong Gusan, or “Nine Mountain Schools” in English. The Nine Mountain Schools were descended from Chan Buddhism in China. This developed during Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.) during the ninth century and is known as Seon Buddhism in Korea. In fact, these Nine Mountain Schools would adopt the name of “Jogye-jong” in reference to Caoxi. Caoxi is the home village where Nanhua Temple is located, which was the home temple where Sixth Patriarch Huineng (638-713 A.D.) lived and taught. Jogye is a transliteration of Caoxi.

However, during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), Cheontae Buddhism, which is a descendant of Tiantai Buddhism in China, grew in popularity and prominence under Uicheon (1055-1101). In response to this, both Jinul (1158-1210) and Taego Bou (1301-1383) led a major Seon movement. In fact, Jinul is thought to be the founder of what we now know as the Jogye Order for attempting to unify the various sects of Korean Buddhism into one cohesive organization during the Goryeo Dynasty. This would lead to one of the guiding principles of Seon Buddhism, which was “sudden enlightenment followed by gradual cultivation.” This principle would be founded on the centrality of meditation supported by the study of sutra as found in Pure Land Buddhism.

However, during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), and over a nearly five hundred year period, any and all forms of Buddhism, which included Seon Buddhism, were repressed in favour of Confucianism. In fact, during the reign of King Sejong the Great (r. 1418-1450), the numerous Buddhist sects that thrived before the Joseon Dynasty were reduced to two: the doctrinal and meditative schools. And even these were suppressed during the reign of King Yeonsangun of Joseon (r. 1494-1506). However, through the efforts of the Righteous Army, as led by Seosan-daesa (1520-1604) and Samyeong-daesa (1544-1610), they would help defend the Korean Peninsula against the invading Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-1598). This would help improve, somewhat, the situation for Buddhism during the mid to latter half of the Joseon Dynasty.

However, it’s not until the political reforms of 1895 that monks, who had previously been banished from Korean cities, were finally allowed back into these urban areas. Then in 1899, under the leadership of Gyeongheo (1849-1912), monks from Haeinsa Temple petitioned the government to re-establish the traditions of Korean Buddhism. Eventually, this would result in the founding of the Won-jong and Imje-jong orders being founded. Also at this time, efforts were made to bring back a doctrinal form of Buddhism. However, these efforts were quashed through suppression following the Japanese Occupation of the Korean Peninsula in 1910.

During the Japanese Occupation of the Korean Peninsula, leading monks like Yongseong (1864-1940) and Manhae (1879-1944) resisted Japanese occupation. It was also during this time, from 1910 to 1945, that efforts were made to re-establish traditional forms of Korean Buddhism. For example, in 1921, the Sonhakwon Seon Meditation Centre was established; and in 1929, a Monks’ Conference of Joseon Buddhism was held. Finally in 1937, a movement to establish a Central Headquarters began, which resulted in the building of the Daeung-jeon Hall at Jogyesa Temple in Seoul in 1938. With all this momentum and hard work, the Joseon Buddhism Jogye Order was established in 1941, which was free of Japanese influence. This would be the modern precursor to today’s Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.

Following the liberation of the Korean Peninsula from the Japanese in 1945, Seon monks began a purification movement that would re-establish the traditional celibate order and expel married monks that had been influenced by Japanese Buddhism. This movement also took back the traditional temples from these married monks. Then in 1955, the Jogye Order was established centred around celibate monks.

Finally, on April 11th, 1962, the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism was officially established. With this, the Jogye Order established three main goals: first, for training and education; second, for sutra translation into Korean from Chinese characters; and third, for the propagation of traditional Korean Buddhism.

Jogyesa Temple in Seoul in August, 2004.

The Jogye Order Now

In total, there are about 3,500 temples and Buddhist centres directly associated with the Jogye Order. And of these 3,500, they are divided into 24 nation wide districts. Remarkably, of the 870 traditional Korean temples, which are supported and preserved with the assistance of the Korean government, more than 90%, or some 840, belong to the Jogye Order. And of these 840 temples, 65% of Korea’s National Treasure, Treasures, and Local Treasures, are found at these temples.

In total, there are over 10,000 monks in the Jogye Order with some 1,500 monastics attending seventeen colleges and universities throughout Korea. Additionally, the Jogye Order has five monastic training temples, which are known as “chongrim” in Korean. It’s here that novice monks receive their training. There’s the Haein Chongrim at Haeinsa Temple; the Jogye Chongrim at Songgwangsa Temple; the Yeongchuk Chongrim at Tongdosa Temple; the Deoksung Chongrim at Sudeoksa Temple; and the Gobul Chongrim at Baegyangsa Temple. At these monastic training temples, novice monks train in three major areas. They are the meditation school, or “seon” in Korean; a traditional sutra school, which is known as a “gangwon” in Korean; and a precepts school.

In addition to the monks and nuns that make up the order, the Jogye Order also runs numerous programs for lay people like the highly popular Temple Stay program, where lay people can experience the life of a monk or nun at some of Korea’s most famous temples like Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul, Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Beomeosa Temple in Busan. In addition to the Temple Stay program, there are various other programs for people of varying ages including children, teenagers, and adults.

Jogye Order District Head Temples

The over 3,500 Jogye Order temples, which includes the vast majority of historic Korean Buddhist temples, are organized under 24 District Head Temples. These 24 head temples oversee a district, which is known as a “gyogu” in Korean. Each of these 24 head temples oversee a large number of subordinate temples. Here are the list of the 24 District Head Temples.

1Jogyesa Temple193845 Gyeonji-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul
2Yongjusa Temple854 A.D.188 Songsan-ni, Taean-eup, Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do
3Sinheungsa Temple652 A.D.170 Seorak-dong, Sokcho-si, Gangwon-do
4Woljeongsa Temple643 A.D.63 Dongsan-ni, Jinbu-myeon, Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do
5Beopjusa Temple553 A.D.209 Sanae-ri, Naesorak-myeon, Boeun-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do
6Magoksa Temple640 A.D.567 Unam-ni, Sagok-myeon, Gongju-si, Chungcheongnam-do
7Sudeoksa Temple6th Century20 Sacheon-ni, Deoksan-myeon, Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do
8Jikjisa Temple418 A.D.216 Unsu-ri, Daehang-myeon, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do
9Donghwasa Temple493 A.D.35 Dohak-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu
10Eunhaesa Temple809 A.D.479 Chiil-ri, Cheongtong-myeon, Yeongcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do
11Bulguksa Temple528 A.D.15 Jinhyeon-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do
12Haeinsa Temple802 A.D.10 Chiin-ri, Gaya-myeon, Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
13Ssanggyesa Temple723 A.D.208 Unsu-ri, Hwangae-myeon, Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
14Beomeosa Temple678 A.D.546 Cheongryong-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan
15Tongdosa Temple643 A.D.583 Jisan-ni, Habuk-myeon, Yangsan-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
16Gounsa Temple681 A.D.116 Gugye-dong, Danchon-myeon, Uiseong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do
17Geumsansa Temple599 A.D.39 Geumsan-ni, Geumsan-myeon, Gimje-gun, Jeollabuk-do
18Baekyangsa Temple632 A.D.26 Yaksu-ri, Bukha-myeon, Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do
19Hwaeomsa Temple544 A.D.12 Hwangjeon-ni, Masan-myeon, Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do
20Songgwangsa Temple10th Century12 Shinpyong-ni, Songgwang-myeon, Suncheon-si, Jeollanam-do
21Daeheungsa Temple426 A.D.799 Gurim-ri, Samsan-myeon, Haenam-gun, Jeollanam-do
22Gwaneumsa Temple1905387 Ara-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju-do
23Seonunsa Temple577 A.D.250 Seonunsa-ro, Asan-myeon, Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do
24Bongseonsa Temple969 A.D.32 Bongseonsa-gil, Jinjeop-eup, Namyangju-si, Gyeonggi-do
Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do in February, 2005.

Reflexively Applying the 1938 Munich Analogy to Ukraine – Just Shows You Need to Read More History and Watch Less TV



MunichThis is a re-post of an essay I just wrote for



I find it intellectually exhausting how often we use WWII analogies to analyze military conflicts. Particularly Americans seem to be obsessed with re-playing 1938 and the Munich conference again and again, with a foreign opponent – communists, Saddam Hussein, Osama bin Laden, the Taliban, Putin – as Hitler and a ‘weak’ US president as Neville Chamberlain.

I have long suspected that the commonplace use of Munich is because:

a) Everybody knows some basic history of WWII, if only from the movies

b) Linking anything to the Nazis automatically raises the stakes and demands attention for your argument

c) the Munich Analogy abets laziness by Americanizing foreign conflicts. The entire discussion devolves into  a debate about whether the US president is weak/Chamberlain or strong/Churchill. So you don’t need to learn anything about the conflict, and all these reporters with no training in strategic studies can still talk about these conflicts like they know what they’re talking about.

But there are lots of conflicts out there which might serve as better models of the current Ukraine war, such as Soviet-Finnish War or the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. So before you start in with the worn-out Hitler Channel WWII analogies, go read more.

Here’s the essay:

The world is rallying around Ukraine in the war. Indeed, it is remarkable just how much the Ukrainian side has dominated the battle for global public opinion. Even Russian President Vladimir Putin, seemingly trapped in an autocrat’s information bubble, appears to realize that now. Because the war is so overtly aggressivetanks rolling across borders in Europe – the media’s analogies to Adolf Hitler’s aggressive war in Europe were probably inevitable.

Please read the rest here.


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