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Jogye Order – 조계종

The Symbol of the Jogye Order

History of the Jogye Order

The Jogye Order, which is officially known as the “Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism” in English, has its roots in the Seonjong Gusan, or “Nine Mountain Schools” in English. The Nine Mountain Schools were descended from Chan Buddhism in China. This developed during Unified Silla (668-935 A.D.) during the ninth century and is known as Seon Buddhism in Korea. In fact, these Nine Mountain Schools would adopt the name of “Jogye-jong” in reference to Caoxi. Caoxi is the home village where Nanhua Temple is located, which was the home temple where Sixth Patriarch Huineng (638-713 A.D.) lived and taught. Jogye is a transliteration of Caoxi.

However, during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), Cheontae Buddhism, which is a descendant of Tiantai Buddhism in China, grew in popularity and prominence under Uicheon (1055-1101). In response to this, both Jinul (1158-1210) and Taego Bou (1301-1383) led a major Seon movement. In fact, Jinul is thought to be the founder of what we now know as the Jogye Order for attempting to unify the various sects of Korean Buddhism into one cohesive organization during the Goryeo Dynasty. This would lead to one of the guiding principles of Seon Buddhism, which was “sudden enlightenment followed by gradual cultivation.” This principle would be founded on the centrality of meditation supported by the study of sutra as found in Pure Land Buddhism.

However, during the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), and over a nearly five hundred year period, any and all forms of Buddhism, which included Seon Buddhism, were repressed in favour of Confucianism. In fact, during the reign of King Sejong the Great (r. 1418-1450), the numerous Buddhist sects that thrived before the Joseon Dynasty were reduced to two: the doctrinal and meditative schools. And even these were suppressed during the reign of King Yeonsangun of Joseon (r. 1494-1506). However, through the efforts of the Righteous Army, as led by Seosan-daesa (1520-1604) and Samyeong-daesa (1544-1610), they would help defend the Korean Peninsula against the invading Japanese during the Imjin War (1592-1598). This would help improve, somewhat, the situation for Buddhism during the mid to latter half of the Joseon Dynasty.

However, it’s not until the political reforms of 1895 that monks, who had previously been banished from Korean cities, were finally allowed back into these urban areas. Then in 1899, under the leadership of Gyeongheo (1849-1912), monks from Haeinsa Temple petitioned the government to re-establish the traditions of Korean Buddhism. Eventually, this would result in the founding of the Won-jong and Imje-jong orders being founded. Also at this time, efforts were made to bring back a doctrinal form of Buddhism. However, these efforts were quashed through suppression following the Japanese Occupation of the Korean Peninsula in 1910.

During the Japanese Occupation of the Korean Peninsula, leading monks like Yongseong (1864-1940) and Manhae (1879-1944) resisted Japanese occupation. It was also during this time, from 1910 to 1945, that efforts were made to re-establish traditional forms of Korean Buddhism. For example, in 1921, the Sonhakwon Seon Meditation Centre was established; and in 1929, a Monks’ Conference of Joseon Buddhism was held. Finally in 1937, a movement to establish a Central Headquarters began, which resulted in the building of the Daeung-jeon Hall at Jogyesa Temple in Seoul in 1938. With all this momentum and hard work, the Joseon Buddhism Jogye Order was established in 1941, which was free of Japanese influence. This would be the modern precursor to today’s Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism.

Following the liberation of the Korean Peninsula from the Japanese in 1945, Seon monks began a purification movement that would re-establish the traditional celibate order and expel married monks that had been influenced by Japanese Buddhism. This movement also took back the traditional temples from these married monks. Then in 1955, the Jogye Order was established centred around celibate monks.

Finally, on April 11th, 1962, the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism was officially established. With this, the Jogye Order established three main goals: first, for training and education; second, for sutra translation into Korean from Chinese characters; and third, for the propagation of traditional Korean Buddhism.

Jogyesa Temple in Seoul in August, 2004.

The Jogye Order Now

In total, there are about 3,500 temples and Buddhist centres directly associated with the Jogye Order. And of these 3,500, they are divided into 24 nation wide districts. Remarkably, of the 870 traditional Korean temples, which are supported and preserved with the assistance of the Korean government, more than 90%, or some 840, belong to the Jogye Order. And of these 840 temples, 65% of Korea’s National Treasure, Treasures, and Local Treasures, are found at these temples.

In total, there are over 10,000 monks in the Jogye Order with some 1,500 monastics attending seventeen colleges and universities throughout Korea. Additionally, the Jogye Order has five monastic training temples, which are known as “chongrim” in Korean. It’s here that novice monks receive their training. There’s the Haein Chongrim at Haeinsa Temple; the Jogye Chongrim at Songgwangsa Temple; the Yeongchuk Chongrim at Tongdosa Temple; the Deoksung Chongrim at Sudeoksa Temple; and the Gobul Chongrim at Baegyangsa Temple. At these monastic training temples, novice monks train in three major areas. They are the meditation school, or “seon” in Korean; a traditional sutra school, which is known as a “gangwon” in Korean; and a precepts school.

In addition to the monks and nuns that make up the order, the Jogye Order also runs numerous programs for lay people like the highly popular Temple Stay program, where lay people can experience the life of a monk or nun at some of Korea’s most famous temples like Bongeunsa Temple in Seoul, Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do, and Beomeosa Temple in Busan. In addition to the Temple Stay program, there are various other programs for people of varying ages including children, teenagers, and adults.

Jogye Order District Head Temples

The over 3,500 Jogye Order temples, which includes the vast majority of historic Korean Buddhist temples, are organized under 24 District Head Temples. These 24 head temples oversee a district, which is known as a “gyogu” in Korean. Each of these 24 head temples oversee a large number of subordinate temples. Here are the list of the 24 District Head Temples.

1Jogyesa Temple193845 Gyeonji-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul
2Yongjusa Temple854 A.D.188 Songsan-ni, Taean-eup, Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do
3Sinheungsa Temple652 A.D.170 Seorak-dong, Sokcho-si, Gangwon-do
4Woljeongsa Temple643 A.D.63 Dongsan-ni, Jinbu-myeon, Pyeongchang-gun, Gangwon-do
5Beopjusa Temple553 A.D.209 Sanae-ri, Naesorak-myeon, Boeun-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do
6Magoksa Temple640 A.D.567 Unam-ni, Sagok-myeon, Gongju-si, Chungcheongnam-do
7Sudeoksa Temple6th Century20 Sacheon-ni, Deoksan-myeon, Yesan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do
8Jikjisa Temple418 A.D.216 Unsu-ri, Daehang-myeon, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do
9Donghwasa Temple493 A.D.35 Dohak-dong, Dong-gu, Daegu
10Eunhaesa Temple809 A.D.479 Chiil-ri, Cheongtong-myeon, Yeongcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do
11Bulguksa Temple528 A.D.15 Jinhyeon-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongsangbuk-do
12Haeinsa Temple802 A.D.10 Chiin-ri, Gaya-myeon, Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
13Ssanggyesa Temple723 A.D.208 Unsu-ri, Hwangae-myeon, Hadong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
14Beomeosa Temple678 A.D.546 Cheongryong-dong, Geumjeong-gu, Busan
15Tongdosa Temple643 A.D.583 Jisan-ni, Habuk-myeon, Yangsan-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do
16Gounsa Temple681 A.D.116 Gugye-dong, Danchon-myeon, Uiseong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do
17Geumsansa Temple599 A.D.39 Geumsan-ni, Geumsan-myeon, Gimje-gun, Jeollabuk-do
18Baekyangsa Temple632 A.D.26 Yaksu-ri, Bukha-myeon, Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do
19Hwaeomsa Temple544 A.D.12 Hwangjeon-ni, Masan-myeon, Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do
20Songgwangsa Temple10th Century12 Shinpyong-ni, Songgwang-myeon, Suncheon-si, Jeollanam-do
21Daeheungsa Temple426 A.D.799 Gurim-ri, Samsan-myeon, Haenam-gun, Jeollanam-do
22Gwaneumsa Temple1905387 Ara-dong, Jeju-si, Jeju-do
23Seonunsa Temple577 A.D.250 Seonunsa-ro, Asan-myeon, Gochang-gun, Jeollabuk-do
24Bongseonsa Temple969 A.D.32 Bongseonsa-gil, Jinjeop-eup, Namyangju-si, Gyeonggi-do
Haeinsa Temple in Hapcheon, Gyeongsangnam-do in February, 2005.

Reflexively Applying the 1938 Munich Analogy to Ukraine – Just Shows You Need to Read More History and Watch Less TV



MunichThis is a re-post of an essay I just wrote for



I find it intellectually exhausting how often we use WWII analogies to analyze military conflicts. Particularly Americans seem to be obsessed with re-playing 1938 and the Munich conference again and again, with a foreign opponent – communists, Saddam Hussein, Osama bin Laden, the Taliban, Putin – as Hitler and a ‘weak’ US president as Neville Chamberlain.

I have long suspected that the commonplace use of Munich is because:

a) Everybody knows some basic history of WWII, if only from the movies

b) Linking anything to the Nazis automatically raises the stakes and demands attention for your argument

c) the Munich Analogy abets laziness by Americanizing foreign conflicts. The entire discussion devolves into  a debate about whether the US president is weak/Chamberlain or strong/Churchill. So you don’t need to learn anything about the conflict, and all these reporters with no training in strategic studies can still talk about these conflicts like they know what they’re talking about.

But there are lots of conflicts out there which might serve as better models of the current Ukraine war, such as Soviet-Finnish War or the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. So before you start in with the worn-out Hitler Channel WWII analogies, go read more.

Here’s the essay:

The world is rallying around Ukraine in the war. Indeed, it is remarkable just how much the Ukrainian side has dominated the battle for global public opinion. Even Russian President Vladimir Putin, seemingly trapped in an autocrat’s information bubble, appears to realize that now. Because the war is so overtly aggressivetanks rolling across borders in Europe – the media’s analogies to Adolf Hitler’s aggressive war in Europe were probably inevitable.

Please read the rest here.

Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University





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LASIK – is a type of surgery when stromal ablation is used after forming a corneal flap with femto-laser or microkeratome. The main advantage of LASIK type of surgery is relatively fast recovery but cornea week to external impacts may be a disadvantage.

ReLEx SMILE ( SMILE LASIK) – is a type of surgery when intrastromal lenticule extraction is performed. 
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Reacting to my OLD Korean speaking videos | feat. Hyunwoo from TTMIK

Hyunwoo (from TTMIK) and I watched some of my old Korean speaking videos together. While many of these I know (such as one of my oldest videos from 2008), many of the others I was watching for the very first time. We critiqued how I sounded, and how I improved (or got worse?) over the years. You can clearly hear differences in how I'm speaking Korean between each year. We analyzed clips from 2008 and 2010, a few years between, and then yearly from 2016 until 2021.

The post Reacting to my OLD Korean speaking videos | feat. Hyunwoo from TTMIK appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

 Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean





Ukraine: We Won’t Put Up a No-Fly Zone, but We do have Other Options: Sanctions, Weapons/Ammo Assistance, Humanitarian Aid, even Foreign Volunteers

Russia T-80 TanksSorry for not posting for awhile. I have commented heavily on the war on Twitter. Please follow me there. I have also been writing a lot of columns on the war for this week. Go here.

This post is a re-up of something I wrote for 1945 this week. Basically I argue that we should stop focusing on whether or not to establish a non-fly zone (NFZ). We are not going to do that. It is way to dangerous. I know the Ukrainians want an NFZ, and we want to help them, but risks of spiraling, kinetic exchanges between NATO and Russia are just too great.

Enforcing an NFZ would require NATO to shoot down Russian planes and helicopters, or at minimum target air defense on the ground. Russian operators would die. NATO pilots would too as the Russians shot back. Pressure would rise on both sides to respond elsewhere and with greater force. That escalation risk is scary. Both are nuclear-armed with large militaries. That constrains us.

Perhaps if the behavior of Russian forces in Ukraine really becomes terrible and extreme, we will reconsider. But that strikes me as a unlikely at the moment. Putin is a gangster, but he’s not Hitler. He also has a strategic interest in not levelling Ukraine and igniting an insurgency in response to occupier brutality.

I would also point out that NATO publics do not want to risk a war with Russia even if you do.

But we can, and are, sending lots of weapons, ammunition, and humanitarian aid, effectively funding and equipping the Ukrainian war effort as the Ukrainians themselves fight it. Sanctions will push up the price of the war for Russia. Even foreign volunteers are now going there.

Here’s that 1945 essay:

Ukraine’s resistance to Russia is genuinely heroic. People around the world have been moved by the inspiring imagery on social media. Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky has become a global celebrity overnight. In this passionate moment, there have been widespread calls for the West to do more.

This is tempting of course. The NATO alliance sits right across the border. Ukraine borders three NATO members. That enormous convoy of Russian armored vehicles north of Kyiv is an attractive target, and Ukraine does not appear to have enough assets to strike it. Zelensky has asked for NATO to impose a no-fly zone over Ukraine. Strategically, this makes sense for the Ukrainians. Russian airpower substantially outguns the Ukrainian side. The incompetence displayed on the Russian side this week will likely slowly give way. The sheer weight of Russian power will likely be brought to bear in the coming month. Ukraine will still probably lose the conflict – even if the likelihood of that is lower than we thought last week.

Read the rest here.

Baegyangsa Temple – 백양사 (Jangseong, Jeollanam-do)

Ssanggye-ru Pavilion at Baegyangsa Temple in Jangseong, Jeollanam-do.

Temple History

Baegyangsa Temple is located in Naejangsan National Park in Jangseong, Jeollanam-do in a valley between Mt. Daegaksan (529.8 m) to the southeast and Mt. Baegamsan (741.2 m) to the northwest. Baegyangsa Temple was first founded in 632 A.D. during the Baekje Kingdom (18 B.C. – 660 A.D.). Originally, when the temple was first constructed, it was called Baegamsa Temple. Later, and during the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392), the temple changed its name to Jeongtosa Temple in 1034. The name of the temple at this time was in reference to the Pure Land in Buddhism, or “Jeongto” in Korean. The temple would change its name, once more, this time to Gakjinguksa Temple in 1350.

The temple was rebuilt in 1574 and was renamed Baegyangsa Temple. It was rebuilt by the monk Hwanyang at this time. The name of the temple, which means “White Sheep Temple” in English, is in reference to white sheep that would come down from the neighbouring mountains to listen to Buddhist sutra readings. After listening to these teachings, the sheep ascended up to the Pure Land.

Over the years, the temple has been renovated several times like in 1786, 1864, and 1917. And during Japanese Colonization (1910-1945), Baegyangsa Temple was named as one of the district head temples. Currently, it’s the 18th District Head Temple of the Jogye-jong Order, which is the largest sect in Korea. Also, Baegyangsa Temple is one of five monastic training temples for the Jogye-jong Order. These are known as “chongrim” in Korean, and Baegyangsa Temple runs the Gobul Chongrim.

In total, Baegyangsa Temple is home to two Korean Treasures, two Natural Monuments, and a Scenic Site. The two Korean Treasures are the Stupa of Buddhist Monk Soyo at Baegyangsa Temple and the Seated Wooden Amitabha Buddha Statue of Baegyangsa Temple. As for the two Natural Monuments, they are the Forest of Japanese Torreyas at Baegyangsa Temple and the Gobulmae Plum of Baegyangsa Temple. And the Scenic Site is the Baegyangsa Temple and Baekhakbong Peak.

Admission to the temple is 3,000 won for adults, 1,000 for teenagers, and 1,000 won for children.

Also, Baegyangsa Temple participates in the popular Temple Stay program.

Temple Layout

With the temple being located in the southern part of the Naejangsan National Park, you’ll find that the walk up to Baegyangsa Temple is one of the prettiest you’ll find in all of Korea. As you make your way towards the temple grounds, large red maples will lead the way during the fall. Next, you’ll find a pond with the Ssanggye-ru Pavilion backing it. This is a picturesque place to snap a few photos whether it’s in the spring, summer, fall, or winter. The pond is beautifully framed by the towering mountain range behind it and the neighbouring trees that surround it.

Around a bend in the path, and to the left, you’ll cross over a bridge and find the Sacheonwangmun Gate. The outside front wall is adorned with a mural of the temple grounds. And housed inside the Sacheonwangmun Gate are four towering statues dedicated to the Four Heavenly Kings.

After exiting the Sacheonwangmun Gate, you’ll pass by the two-story Jong-gak. This is followed by the Uhwa-ru Pavilion that acts as the main entry gate to the rest of the temple grounds. Immediately to your right, and standing squarely in the centre of the main temple courtyard, you’ll find the Daeung-jeon Hall. The main hall was rebuilt in 1917, and the exterior walls are adorned with Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha) and various Buddhist motif murals. Behind the Daeung-jeon Hall is a nine-story pagoda. Stepping inside the Daeung-jeon Hall, you’ll find a triad of statues on the main altar. In the centre is Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha), who is joined on either side by Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom) and Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power). To the right of the main altar hangs a beautiful Dokseong (The Lonely Saint) mural. And to the left of the main altar is a shrine dedicated to the Nahan. These statues of the Nahan are backed by the Palsang-do (The Eight Scenes from the Buddha’s Life).

In front of the Daeung-jeon Hall, and to the left, is a two-in-one temple shrine hall. The first shrine hall, and the one placed to the right, is the Chilseong-gak Hall. An image of the Jeseok-bul (King of Heaven Buddha/Indra) sits alone on the main altar. And seven statues of Chilseong (The Seven Stars) join Jeseok-bul on either side and are joined by a golden string that connects all eight images. And the temple shrine hall to the left of the Chilseong-gak Hall, and still in the same building, is the Josa-jeon Hall. Inside this temple shrine hall, you’ll find numerous murals dedicated to prominent monks that once called Baegyangsa Temple home.

Next to the Chilseong-gak/Josa-jeon Hall is the historic Geukrakbo-jeon Hall. This hall dates back to 1574, when it was first built by the monk Hwaneung. Stepping inside this compact shrine hall, you’ll immediately notice the large image of Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise) on the main altar. As of June, 2020, the statue was designated as a Korean Treasure. Officially, this statue is known as the Seated Wooden Amitabha Buddha Statue of Baegyangsa Temple. It was first created in 1607 by three monks that included Hyeonjin. It was made for the peace of the deceased royal ancestors of King Seonjo of Joseon (r. 1567-1608). It was made at a time when Buddhist architectural artifacts were being restored immediately after the Imjin War (1592-1598) thanks to the large role that Korean Buddhism played in defending the Korean Peninsula. Interestingly, it’s the largest Buddha statue made before 1610. A letter at the base of the pedestal contains information on when it was first constructed and who created it. The statue was created by using wood that was overlaid with clay to give it a more natural appearance. The face of Amita-bul is plump, and it has imposing shoulders that gives the statue a greater presence. And in 1741 and 1775, a re-application of gold bond powder was applied to the statue twice. Joining this beautiful statue in the Geukrakbo-jeon Hall is a Shinjung Taenghwa (Guardian Mural) to the right and a mural dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit) with a white tiger in the back corner of the temple shrine hall.

And the only other temple shrine hall that visitors can explore at Baegyangsa Temple is the Myeongbu-jeon Hall to the left of the Geukrakbo-jeon hall. Housed inside this temple shrine hall is a statue of Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife) on the main altar.

How To Get There

To get to Baegyangsa Temple, you can catch a bus from the Gwangju Intercity Bus Terminal. Buses to Baegyangsa Temple first leave at 6:35 a.m., and they run until 7:50 p.m. These buses leave at intervals anywhere from 60 to 80 minutes, and the bus ride will take one hour and twenty minutes.

Overall Rating: 7/10

Baegyangsa Temple is surrounded by so much natural beauty, which only adds to the temple’s overall appeal. Adding to the towering craggy peaks and the meandering stream are a handful of Korean Treasures and Natural Monuments. Of particular beauty is the newly minted Seated Wooden Amitabha Buddha Statue of Baegyangsa Temple as a Korean Treasure inside the historic Geukrakbo-jeon Hall. Also of interest is the unique interior of the Chilseong-gak Hall, the Sanshin white tiger mural in the Geukrakbo-jeon Hall, and the picturesque Ssanggye-ru Pavilion. The temple is a peaceful place for reflection.

Another look at the Ssanggye-ru Pavilion at the entry of the temple grounds.
The beautiful surroundings at Baegyangsa Temple.
The Sacheonwangmun Gate.
A look inside the Sacheonwangmun Gate at one of the Four Heavenly Kings.
The Jong-gak (Bell Pavilion) and the Uhwa-ru Pavilion behind it.
The Daeung-jeon Hall.
A look inside the Daeung-jeon Hall.
The nine-story pagoda behind the Daeung-jeon Hall.
The Chilseong-gak Hall (right) and the Josa-jeon Hall (left).
A look inside the Chilseong-gak Hall.
And a look inside the Josa-jeon Hall.
A beautiful butterfly door hinge that’s joined to the Geukrakbo-jeon Hall.
A look inside the Geukrakbo-jeon Hall at the Seated Wooden Amitabha Buddha Statue of Baegyangsa Temple.
And the Sanshin (Mountain Spirit) mural in the back corner of the Geukrakbo-jeon Hall.

~답시고 & ~(이)랍시고 Disappointed Contrast | Live Class Abridged

Almost every Sunday I've been doing a live Korean classroom on my YouTube channel, teaching topics that were voted on by everyone. This last Sunday's topic was decided to be ~답시고 and ~(이)랍시고, which are Advanced level grammar forms used to show contrast, as well as to express sarcasm or disappointment.

The full live stream was nearly 2 hours, but the shortened version here is just over 15 minutes. Note that this is an Advanced level form and requires first understanding quoting forms to use it.

The post ~답시고 & ~(이)랍시고 Disappointed Contrast | Live Class Abridged appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

의 vs 네 – Two Possessive Markers | Korean FAQ

A common particle is 네 - I'm not talking about "Yes," but the particle 네. This particle is used in a similar way as 의, but has a unique meaning. It's used after nouns to mean that someone or something is a part of a group or organization.

In this video I'll compare it to 의, and show how you can use it in your sentences.

The post 의 vs 네 – Two Possessive Markers | Korean FAQ appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

Sumisan Sect – Gwangjosa-ji Temple Site (Haeju, Hwanghae-do, North Korea)

A Historic Picture of the Jincheol-daesa Biseok. (Picture Courtesy of Naver).

The Sumisan sect was located at the Gwangjosa-ji Temple Site in Haeju, Hwanghae-do, North Korea. The Sumisan sect was established by the monk Ieom-daesa (866-932 A.D.). Ieom-daesa’s family name was Kim, and he was born in 866 A.D. At the age of twelve, he became a monk at Gapsa Temple in Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do. He would receive his precepts under the monk Deongnyang.

In 894 A.D., Ieom-daesa would travel to Tang China (618–690, 705–907 A.D.) and receive the dharma from Yunju Daoying (830-902 A.D.), who was the head disciple of the monk Dongshan Liangjia (807-869 A.D.). Ieom-daesa would return to Silla in 911 A.D., where he resided at Seunggwangsa Temple in Naju in present-day Jeollanam-do. After receiving a royal decree from King Taejo of Goryeo (r. 918-943 A.D.), Gwangjosa Temple was founded on Mt. Sumisan, where the Sumisan sect would flourish. Ieom-daesa would pass away in 936 A.D. His posthumous name was Jincheol, and he would have a few hundred disciples that would help propagate his Seon teachings. The Sumisan sect was the last of the Nine Mountain Schools to be established. It would remain as an active sect until the start of the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910), when it disappears from the records in 1418. And unfortunately, because it’s located in North Korea, very little, if anything, is known about the Gwangjosa-ji Temple Site.

A historic picture of the five-story stone pagoda at the Gwangjosa-ji Temple Site. (Picture courtesy of Naver).
A contemporary picture of the five-story stone pagoda at the Gwangjosa-ji Temple Site. (Picture courtesy of Naver).


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