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Taego Order – 태고종

The Symbol of the Taego Order

History of the Taego Order

The Taego Order is the second largest Buddhist order in Korea behind the Jogye Order. In total, the Taego Order consists of some 3,100 temples and 8,000 monastics. The Taego Order is headquartered out of Seonamsa Temple in Suncheon, Jeollanam-do. And the name of the order derives from Taego Bou (1301-1383). Along with the monk Jinul (1158-1210), who is considered to be the founder of the Jogye Order, the two monks would help organize the various Goryeo-era Buddhist sects into one cohesive organization. And while Taego Bou is considered the co-founder of the Jogye Order, he’s also considered the sole founder of the Taego Order, for which the Buddhist order gets its name. Both the Jogye Order and Taego Order are derived from Chan Buddhism.

What separates and distinguishes the one from the other is that the Taego Order allows for its monks to marry, although nuns still have to remain celibate; while Jogye Order monks and nuns have to remain celibate. This idea is a holdover from the Japanese Colonization of Korea from 1910 to 1945 and Japanese Buddhism. In addition, Taego Order monks can get married. The reason for this is that it’s believed that married monastics can play an instrumental role in the Buddhist community.

As was already mentioned, the Taego Order was first founded near the end of the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) and continued until 1954, when President Syngman Rhee (1875-1965) and a number of celibate monks initiated the Buddhist Purification Movement in Korea. This would result in a split into two parts. On one side were the celibate monks that would become the Jogye Order; and on the other side, were a combination of celibate and married monks. The latter would become the Taego Order. It was also at this time that the traditional colour of the kasa (robe) for the Jogye Order changed to brown from the traditional red kasa. This was done to differentiate the two new Korean Buddhist orders.

With the separation of the two orders, the Jogye Order, with the support of the Korean government, took possession of most of the traditional temples by forcing out married monks. This resulted in the Taego Order monastics having to form their own new order and build all-new temples. Then in 1970, the Taego Order was officially founded and named for Taego Bou.

The Taego Order Now

The Taego Order is perhaps better known internationally than the Jogye Order. This is in part thanks to the creation of the “The Institute of Buddhist Studies” or “I.B.S.” Before 2004, all Taego Order monks were Korean monks. The reason for this is that the Taego constitution required all monks to attend a Buddhist college and graduate with an extensive education in Buddhist teachings. Only then could a monk be fully ordained. This made it difficult for non-Koreans, who didn’t speak the Korean language, to graduate from these Buddhist colleges. So non-Korean monks that wanted to become a member of the Taego Order would first need to learn the Korean language before entering the four years of training it required to become a monastic.

However, this all changed in 1999, when the Ven. Dr. Jongmae Park, a Buddhist Director at the University of Southern California, or U.S.C, created an entire program of Buddhist studies. And in 2007, this program was made available as an online course, which was then accepted as the equivalent to taking the full Taego Order Buddhist studies program in Korea. And upon graduation, students can travel to Korea to further their training at a Taego Order temple.

Prominent Taego Order Temples

There are numerous Taego Order temples both in Korea and abroad. In Korea, perhaps the most famous is its headquarters at Seonamsa Temple in Suncheon, Jeollanam-do. Other temples belonging to this order in Korea are Bongwonsa Temple in Seoul and Seonbeopsa Temple in Hanam, Gyeonggi-do. And abroad, you can enjoy numerous temples in the U.S. like Muddy Water Zen Temple in Michigan.

Seonamsa Temple in Suncheon, Jeollanam-do

When someone asks why you're learning Korean | Comedy Skit

I met up with 샘물 from the YouTube channel "Your Korean Saem" and we filmed this comedy skit together. The idea was a Korean learner who is a bit embarrassed to explain why they're learning Korean.

As a Korean teacher, I interact with learners who are interested in Korean for a variety of reasons - everything from Korean music to other media, to the country itself, or simply to the language. Whatever your reason, it's wonderful that so many people are interested in Korean and studying it.

So I wanted to make a funny skit about how although it might be common these days for most people to start learning Korean because of K-pop, that it doesn't really matter as long as you're interested in Korean. And keep in mind that Native Korean speakers are more than happy to know that you're trying to learn their language.

Always remember, it’s okay to learn Korean no matter your reason. You can do it! Keep calm, and study Korean!

The post When someone asks why you're learning Korean | Comedy Skit appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

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China’s Support for Putin in Ukraine, and Resistance to Sanctions, is Not Just about Taiwan

ChinaThis is a local re-post of a column I wrote recently for 1945.com. If you want to see just how absurd Chinese support for Putin is becoming, here is China’s own version of QAnon.

My basic argument is that Beijing is supporting Russia for reasons beyond just the precedent for its own move on Taiwan someday and desire for Russian support for that. That’s part of it obviously. But I think there at least three deeper reasons, which I initially suggested here on Twitter:

First, ideological. China is an autocracy. It wants other autocracies to survive in order to mask or normalize its own autocracy. It does not want to stand alone, as a authoritarian outlier in a world of democracies with a global norm of democracy. So it will not enforce sanctions on N Korea, nor on Russia. It won’t help its own ideological self-isolation.

Second, strategic. China has an obvious interest in Russia and North Korea playing spoiler to the world’s democracies. If the democracies are busy with North Korean shenanigans and Putin’s risk-taking, they’re not focusing on the East and South China Seas. So why not keep these countries afloat for the distraction value?

Third, economic. Sanctions-running is lucrative. It’s a nice way to get ultra-cheap contracts for NK fishing rights or Russian natural resource exports.

Also, Putin getting himself bloodied against the West is also no bad thing for China, given long standing Chinese-Russian tensions in Asia.

Here’s that 1945 essay:

Ukrainian resistance in the war against Russia has surprised everyone. There is now a growing chance Ukraine may stalemate the Russian army. And even should Ukraine be defeated – which is still likely given the sheer amount of force Russian President Vladimir Putin can bring to bear if he chooses – a Ukrainian insurgency seems increasingly likely. Western support of that insurgency also seems increasingly likely.

In short, Putin will not win the quick war he appears to have expected. Russia will be badly isolated and increasingly dependent on China as an escape hatch from the pressure of sanctions.

Read the rest here.

Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University

@Robert_E_Kelly

 

 

Botapsa Temple – 보탑사 (Jincheon, Chungcheongbuk-do)

The Three-Story Wooden Pagoda Main Hall at Botapsa Temple in Jincheon, Chungcheongbuk-do.

Temple History

Botapsa Temple is located in Yeongok-ri in Jincheon, Chungcheongbuk-do. The name Yeongok means “lotus flower” in Korean. And the reason that the area is called this is because of the nine peaks surrounding the area, which resembles a lotus flower. As for the temple name, it means “Jewel Pagoda Temple” in English.

The present temple is located on a former temple site that was long thought to have been one of the largest temples built during the Three Kingdoms of Korea (18 B.C – 660 A.D.) and through to the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). More recently, and in 1988, a three-story wooden pagoda was built on the temple grounds. This large Dharma Hall was built in the tradition of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and it was modeled after the nine-story wooden pagoda of the historic Hwangnyongsa Temple in Gyeongju. The three-story wooden pagoda now housed at the modern Botapsa Temple stands 42.73 metres in height, and the wooden pagoda is meant to symbolize a lotus flower for the wishes of the reunification of the Korean peninsula.

Also of note, Botapsa Temple is located near the home where Gen. Kim Yusin (595-673 A.D.) was born. The temple is also home to Stele of Yeongok-ri, which is Korean Treasure #404.

Temple Layout

When you first approach the temple grounds from the temple parking lot, you’ll first encounter the Cheonwangmun Gate. The exterior walls to this entry gate are adorned with beautiful pine tree and lotus flower murals. Housed inside the Cheonwangmun Gate are the Four Heavenly Kings. All four of these statues are newly designed. Continuing to climb the stone stairs, you’ll pass by a pair of pavilions on your way towards the main temple courtyard at Botapsa Temple. The pavilion to the left is known as the Beomjong-gak Pavilion. Housed inside this pavilion is a beautiful Brahma Bell. And the pavilion to the right is known as the Beomgo-gak Pavilion. Housed inside this pavilion are the Dharma Drum, the Wooden Fish Drum, and the Cloud Plate Drum. All three Buddhist percussion instruments are beautiful in design.

Having passed by these two pavilions, and climbed the last few stairs, you’ll now be standing squarely in the main temple courtyard. And the most obvious of shrine halls is the three-story Dharma Hall. The exterior walls are painted with traditional dancheong colours with Narayeon Geumgang and Miljeok Geumgang (Heng and Ha) murals painted around the second story of the structure. Stepping inside the wooden pagoda, you’ll find a four-sided main altar. And the four sided main altar are occupied by four different triads. The triad to the east is occupied by Yaksayeorae-bul (The Medicine Buddha, and the Buddha of the Eastern Paradise). This central image is joined on either side by Ilgwang-bosal (The Sun Bodhisattva) and Wolgwang-bosal (The Moon Bodhisattva). The triad on the main altar to the west is centred by Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise). This central image is joined by two standing images of Daesaeji-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom and Power for Amita-bul) and Gwanseeum-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Compassion). On the north side of the main altar, you’ll find Birojana-bul (The Buddha of Cosmic Energy), who is joined by Bohyeon-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Power) and Munsu-bosal (The Bodhisattva of Wisdom). And on the south side of the main altar, you’ll find a triad centred by Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha). This four-sided main altar surrounds a large centre column in which the partial cremated remains of the Buddha, Seokgamoni-bul, are enshrined.

The second story of the three-story wooden pagoda is known as the Beopbo-jeon Hall. On this second story, you’ll find a handful of highly intricate Yunjangdae (Revolving Scriptures Library Pillar). Housed inside the Yungjangdae are the Lotus Sutra. And the third story of the structure is the Mireuk-jeon Hall. Housed on this floor is a standing Mireuk-bul (Future Buddha) triad.

To the left of the three-story Dharma Hall is the hexagonal Yeongsan-jeon Hall. This plainly painted exterior houses a six-sided interior that houses the five hundred Nahan (The Historical Disciples of the Buddha) on artificial mountainous altars. And in the centre of these artificial outcropping is the central main altar that houses a solitary image of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha).

To the left of the Yeongsan-jeon Hall, and through a forested pathway, you’ll exit on the other side of a clearing. In the forested area, you’ll find a modern three-story black brick pagoda with a golden finial atop it. And in the clearing, you’ll find the Stele of Yeongok-ri. The stele rests under a protective wooden pavilion. The purpose of this stele, unfortunately, is unknown as there is no inscription on it. Additionally, it’s never been proven that there ever was an inscription on this stele. The base of a traditional stele is typically a tortoise; however, the face to the base of this stele looks more like a horse. As for the capstone of the stele, there are nine dragons engraved realistically with masterful masonry skills. It’s believed that the Stele of Yeongok-ri dates back to the early Goryeo Dynasty.

Back at the Dharma Hall, and behind the three-story wooden pagoda, you’ll find the temple’s Jijang-jeon Hall. Above the three entry doors to this temple shrine hall, you’ll find three beautiful murals. One is dedicated to the Banya Yongseon-do (Dragon Ship of Wisdom), the other to the redemptive Amita-bul (The Buddha of the Western Paradise), and the final to Jijang-bosal (The Bodhisattva of the Afterlife). Stepping inside the cavernous Jijang-jeon Hall, you’ll find the long main altar occupied by a golden-capped Jijang-bosal.

And to the right rear of the Jijang-jeon Hall, you’ll find the Sanshin-gak Hall, which looks like a log cabin. Unfortunately, this shaman shrine hall was locked when I visited. Not sure why. But housed inside the Sanshin-gak Hall is a solitary painting dedicated to Sanshin (The Mountain Spirit).

The final temple shrine hall that visitors can explore at Botapsa Temple is the Jeokjo-jeon Hall to the right of the three-story main hall. The exterior walls to this shrine hall are adorned with the Palsang-do (The Eight Scenes from the Buddha’s Life). And the front doors are adorned with a colour collection of doors with Ggotsalmun (Flower Latticework Doors).

How To Get There

From the Jincheon Bus Terminal, you can take one of two buses. You can take either Bus #196 or Bus #231. If you take Bus #196, it’ll take you 35 minutes, or 20 stops. The bus will let you off at the “Botapsa – 보탑사” bus stop. From where it lets you off, you’ll need to walk about 5 minutes, or 300 metres, to get to Botapsa Temple.

And if you decide to take Bus #231, it’ll take 50 minutes, or 25 stops. It’ll let you off at the “Botapsa – 보탑사” bus stop, as well. And again, you’ll need to walk about 5 minutes, or 300 metres, to get to Botapsa Temple. It should be noted that neither of these buses comes all that often.

And if public transportation isn’t your thing, you can simply take a taxi from the Jincheon Bus Terminal. The taxi ride will take about 20 minutes, and it’ll cost you 17,500 won (one way).

Overall Rating: 8/10

It’s not hard to figure out that the main attraction at Botapsa Temple is the three-story Dharma Hall. And rather amazingly, you can visit all three floors. The first floor is the most beautiful with the four-sided main altar. But all three floors are beautiful. But outside the main attraction, there is plenty of other things to enjoy at Botapsa Temple like the historic Stele of Yeongok-ri, the log cabin-like Sanshin-gak Hall, and the hexagonal Yeongsan-jeon Hall. While rather remote, Botapsa Temple is definitely worth a visit.

A look towards the Cheonwangmun Gate.
The beautiful lotus flower mural that adorns the exterior of the Cheonwangmun Gate.
A look inside the Cheonwangmun Gate at two of the Four Heavenly Kings.
A look past the Beomjong-gak Pavilion (left) and the hidden Beomgo-gak Pavilion towards the main temple courtyard.
A look inside the Beomgo-gak Pavilion.
The amazing three-story wooden pagoda main hall at Botapsa Temple.
One of the four-sided main altars inside the main hall. This is the south side with the central image of Seokgamoni-bul (The Historical Buddha).
A look up the central column from the north side of the main altar.
The second-story of the main hall with one of a handful of Yunjangdae (Revolving Scriptures Library Pillar).
The hexagonal Yeongsan-jeon Hall at Botapsa Temple.
The horse-like head of the Stele of Yeongok-ri, which is Korean Treasure #404.
The Jijang-jeon Hall.
The log cabin-like Sanshin-gak Hall.
The floral latticework that adorns the Jeokjo-jeon Hall.
And one more look up at the beautiful wooden pagoda Dharma Hall.

Verb Endings ~네(요), ~지(요), ~나(요), ~군(요) | Live Class Abridged

Sunday we had a live Korean classroom about verb endings. These are some of the most commonly used verb endings, and they each have unique uses.

We learned about the verb endings ~네(요), ~지(요), ~나(요) or ~가(요), ~(는)군(요), and ~(는)구나. The full live stream was over an hour and a half, but the shortened version here is just 15 minutes.

The post Verb Endings ~네(요), ~지(요), ~나(요), ~군(요) | Live Class Abridged appeared first on Learn Korean with GO! Billy Korean.

Korean writing – How to form syllable blocks and words

Korean writing at first glance may appear to be similar to Chinese or Japanese, especially if this is a new language to you. But upon a closer look, especially with a piece of text by each language placed next to each other, it’s easy to see Korean is quite different, after all.

Some may even be mind blown when they realize the Korean language isn’t written by characters but with their own alphabetic system. This can certainly gain one’s interest in how the Korean writing system works.

This article aims to offer you an overview of how to write Korean words and, eventually, full sentences to help with your Korean fluency.

Introduction to the Korean writing system

Thankfully, compared to Japanese and Chinese, Korean is much easier to learn. Instead of characters like in Chinese, or a combination of writing systems like in Japanese, the Korean language has a set of alphabets they use for everything, and that’s it. It should only take you a few hours at most to memorize each letter!

The Korean alphabet

The Korean alphabet is comprised of consonants and vowels. There are 14 Korean consonants and 10 Korean vowels, plus some additional combinations.

If Korean is a new language to you, you should start by learning the Korean alphabet together with us. Even if you have to go check out the Korean alphabet article first, don’t fret – it only takes a little bit of your time to learn Hangeul, and then you can come back here!

Hangeul stroke order

If you’ve already concluded that step and learned about the stroke order, you can continue diving deeper into the Korean writing system.

As you learn Hangul, do take the time to learn the specific stroke order of each letter. After that, you’ll finally be ready to practice more aspects of the Korean writing system with us in this article!

Hanja

Korea also uses Chinese characters, called hanja, in the Korean language, but they are not used as widely. You may want to learn them for fun, but they’re not essential for survival.

Korean syllable blocks

Korean writing is done through syllable blocks. That means that while each Korean or Hangul alphabet is its own letter, none of them appear alone. Instead, two or more of the alphabet letters are constructed into one block. Therefore, each Korean word also comprises one or more Korean syllables.

Basic rules of forming Korean syllables

There are numerous ways each letter can be combined into a syllable. However, there are certain rules for constructing the letters within a syllable.

Start with a consonant

The first rule of thumb is that each syllable block begins with a consonant. This means that when the syllable technically only consists of a vowel, it gets combined together with the letter ㅇ, so the first letter is still a consonant—for example, the Korean vowel ㅏis not written as ㅏ but as 아.

Although the letter ㅇ normally has an “ng” sound, in these instances, it’s quiet and simply added there due to the Korean writing rules. Of course, no syllable can exist without at least one vowel included, either.

Consider the vowel placement

The way each syllable is constructed depends on the vowel used. If it’s a vertical vowel, in other words, ㅣ, ㅏ, ㅓ, and so on, then the initial consonant is placed on the left side of the vowel.

If the vowel is horizontal, so ㅜ, ㅡ, ㅗ, and so on, then the first consonant should be placed above the vowel. Additionally, it is possible to have one final consonant, two final consonants, or none. Below we have illustrated possible block combinations of syllables.

It is not formed in a horizontal line

To illustrate further, when you write using Latin characters and many otherworldly languages, you will simply place each letter in a sequence. Like this:

K + O + R + E + A = Korea.

However, in the Korean language, you will have to place them into specific blocks, which together then form the word.

So, in the case of the same word, but in Korean, it would look like this:

ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄴ ㄱ + ㅜ + ㄱ = 한국.

This is an excellent example of forming the block both using a vertical vowel and a horizontal vowel.

As you may notice, writing it as ㅎㅏㄴㄱㅜㄱ wouldn’t even make any sense. Therefore, using Korean syllable blocks to write comprehensively makes the most sense.

How to easily create Korean syllable blocks?

Now that we have covered the basic rules of writing syllables, it’s time to start looking at practical examples of them. By learning Korean and practicing this, you establish a great foundation of Korean writing skills.

Step 1: Figure out which vowel you are using

As the vowel used in the syllable determines the placement of the consonants, this is your starting point for building one. Are you using a horizontal or vertical vowel?

Step 2: Figure out whether your syllable ends with a vowel or a consonant

If the syllable ends with a vowel, you will only need two letters to complete it. However, if you add one or two consonants after the vowel, you need to leave space for them below the first two letters in the syllable.

Step 3: Create the syllable block

Now that you have determined the ingredients of the syllable block, you can “fill-in-the-blanks,” so to speak. Note that English and other language sounds are unreliable for telling you how each block should be formed. Hence, it’s best for you to master Korean pronunciation while forming syllables.

How to practice writing Korean syllable blocks?

Now that you know the rules for writing a word and have a step-by-step guide for creating them, it’s time to start your writing practice!

First and foremost, practice reading and writing syllables with only one consonant and vowel, as presented below. This is how Korean children learn to read and write, too.

Initial ConsonantSyllables
가갸거겨고교구규그기
나냐너녀노뇨누뉴느니
다댜더뎌도됴두듀드디
라랴러려로료루류르리
마먀머며모묘무뮤므미
바뱌버벼보뵤부뷰브비
사샤서셔소쇼수슈스시
아야어여오요우유으이
자쟈저져조죠주쥬즈지
차챠처쳐초쵸추츄츠치
카캬커켜코쿄쿠큐크키
타탸터텨토툐투튜트티
파퍄퍼펴포표 푸퓨프피
하햐허혀호효후휴흐히

Writing words with one syllable

Of course, many blocks of syllables include 3 or even 4 letters. You can practice forming these blocks first for one-syllable words before moving on to more complex ones. Below are a few examples.

EnglishHangeul syllables formedRomanization
Rainㅂ + ㅣ = 비 bi
Dogㄱ + ㅐ = 개gae
Secondㅊ + ㅗ = 초cho
Doorㅁ + ㅜ + ㄴ = 문mun
Horseㅁ + ㅏ + ㄹ = 말mal
Whyㅇ + ㅙ = 왜wae
Leafㅇ + ㅣ + ㅍ = 잎ip
Chickenㄷ + ㅏ + ㄹ + ㄱ = 닭dal

In the case of the last word, chicken, you may have noticed we also come across some specific pronunciation rules. When there are two final consonants, one may become a silent one, as in this example.

However, the pronunciation also depends on which syllable follows it. Thus, depending on the word as a whole, the ㄱ may also become audible while ㄹ will become silent, or they may both get pronounced! You can start learning Korean pronunciation with our guide, which has been linked above.

Writing words with 2 or more syllables

Next, let’s go over some longer words for practice.

EnglishHangeul syllables formed Romanization
Bedroomㅊ + ㅣ + ㅁ + ㅅ +ㅣ + ㄹ = 침실chimsil
Laptopㄴ + ㅗ + ㅌ + ㅡ + ㅂ + ㅜ + ㄱ = 노트북noteubuk
Penguinㅍ + ㅔ + ㄴ + ㄱ + ㅟ + ㄴ = 펜귄pengwin
To eatㅁ + ㅓ + ㄱ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 먹다meokda
To borrowㅂ + ㅣ + ㄹ + ㄹ + ㅣ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 빌리다billida
To prepareㅈ + ㅜ + ㄴ + ㅂ + ㅣ + ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 준비하다junbihada
To likeㅈ + ㅗ + ㅎ + ㅇ + ㅏ + ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 좋아하다joahada
To dislikeㅅ + ㅣ + ㄹ + ㅎ + ㅇ + ㅓ + ㅎ + ㅏ + ㄷ + ㅏ = 싫어하다sileohada

By now, you should be properly familiar with the Korean alphabet and forming syllables and Korean words too. If you are also well-versed in pronouncing Korean words, then creating those syllables presented above should be easy.

Next up in your road towards Korean fluency is writing practice on those syllable blocks! Perhaps you could do so with the help of our most common Korean words -article? Also, let us know what you thought of the Korean way to construct syllable blocks in the comments!

The post Korean writing – How to form syllable blocks and words appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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More on Sanctions against Russia: Yes, Sanctions are Blunt and Limited, but Our Options are Limited; a No-Fly Zone would be very Risky

SanctionsThis is a re-post of something I wrote recently at 1945.com on sanctioning Russia. It pulls from Twitter debates on Russian sanctions I’ve gotten tangled up in (here, here, here).

So everybody agrees that sanctions are a blunt tool. And everybody also agrees that sanctions don’t ‘work’ if you insist that they should achieve some enormous goal like pushing Russia out of Ukraine or denuclearizing North Korea. And it’s probably true that the US particularly overuses sanctions. And finally, it’s common to blame sanctions for humanitarian impacts (although I’d argue that’s more because of internal allocative decisions in the target states, but that’s a debate for another time).

So everybody agrees they kinda suck. So why do we do them? Because they are often a middle option between dovish diplomacy and the hawkish use of force:

Diplomacy is ideal, and in some cases like the Iran deal, it appears to have worked. Trump dumping that deal for sanctions was a mistake. But in tough cases like NK WMD or Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, diplomacy seems like too weak a response. NK has a long history of gaming talks to buy time to build its WMD, and it’s pretty clear in Ukraine that Russia is seeking a battlefield solution. So yes, let’s keep talking, but tougher cases probably require a bit of steel in the glove.

The use of force is too much steel in the glove though in most cases. An no-fly zone over Ukraine is a step toward NATO-Russian war, as just about everyone now grasps. Denuclearizing NK by force would likely start another war.

So yeah, sanctions are unsatisfying, but we wind up there, because other options are often worse. Here is that 1945 essay:

The Limits on Sanctions against Russia – The Russian invasion of Ukraine is bogging down. Russia’s poor tactical performance and severe logistical snarls have surprised much of the world, including Putin himself apparently. The Ukrainians are fighting better and harder than expected. Ukraine’s civilian population is rising up. We have all seen videos of regular Ukrainians yelling at Russian soldiers or making Molotov cocktails.

This war is not the blitzkrieg Putin hoped for. Ukraine will not consensually join a Russian sphere of influence. Resistance is widespread, and Russia will need to leave an occupation army for some time if it hopes to solidify its gains. Hence, even if the Ukrainian military is defeated on the battlefield – which is still probable –a Ukrainian insurgency seems likely.

Please read the rest here.

how to say the seven Days of the Week in Korean ?

The Korean word for days of the week is 요일 (yo-il). To say all Korean days of the week, all you have to do is memorize "wol-hwa-su-mok-geum-to-il”( 월-화-수-목-금-토-일 ) and add “요일”(yo-il) at the end.

Here's the structure

월/화/수/목/금/토/일(wol-hwa-su-mok-geum-to-il) + 요일(yo-il)

If you want to know how to say the first days of the workweek i.e. Monday in Korean, it's 월요일.(월(wol) + 요일 (yo-il).Here is how to say Monday to Sunday in Korean (all seven days of the week in Korean )

  • Monday in korean - 월요일( wol-yo-il) – 월(wol) + 요일 (yo-il)
  • Tuesday in korean - 화요일(hwa-yo-il) – 화 (hwa) + 요일(yo-il)
  • Wednesday in korean–    수요일(su-yo-il) – 수(su) + 요일 (yo-il)
  • Thursday in korean–     목요일(mok-yo-il) – 목(mok) + 요일(yo-il)
  • Friday in korean –        금요일(geum-yo-il) – 금(geum) + 요일 (yo-il)
  • Saturday in korean-      토요일(to-yo-il)– 토(to) + 요일(yo-il)
  • Sunday in korean - 일요일 (il-yo-il)– 일(il)+ 요일 (yo-il)

Korean Days Of The Week Meaning: The Secret Behind Each Day Of The Week.

The meaning of the days of the week in Korean is based on the five elements of nature in Chinese culture(fire, water, wood, gold, earth) plus the moon and sun. Monday means moon, Tuesday means fire, Wednesday & Thursday means water and wood, Friday represents gold, while Saturday and Sunday each represent land(soil) and Day.

Here is the complete list of hanja of 7 days of the week with its meanings, hanja, and pronunciation.

  • Monday means -월 (wol) means “moon” and the Hanja is 月
  • Tuesday means- (hwa) means “fire” and the Hanja is 火
  • Wednesday means- (su) means “water”  and the Hanja is 水
  • Thursday means- 목 (mok)  means  “wood “ and the Hanja is 木
  • Friday means – 금 (geum) means “gold “and the Hanja is 金
  • Saturday means – 토 (tho)  means “earth” and the Hanja is 土
  • Sunday means – 일 (il)  means “sun” and the Hanja is 日

Well, apparently it’s a historical thing.

and What’s really interesting is that Korean days of the week are named after some Chinese characters (based on Chinese astrology, which is just plain old weird). So naturally, each of these words has a meaning! 

important tips

In Korean, you cannot use these Korean words “wol-hwa-su-mok-geum-to-il” (월화수목금토일) on their own like

Sunday in Korean is 일요일. But 일 can also mean the sun and the day. So to say “sun in korean” you should use태양 (tae-yang) not 일(il).

How To Ask A Question About Korean Days Of The Week (& Answer It)?

Congrats! Now you can say Korean days of the week. why not try to ask about it  

Here is how 

Let’s make some simple sentences 

Asking for days of the week formally

  • What day is it today?

오늘 무슨 요일이에요?

  • Today is thursday

오늘은 목요일이에요.oneureun mogyoirieyo

Asking for days of the week in Korean in a causal way( talking with close friends or younger than you)

  • What day is it tomorrow?

내일 무슨 요일이야?naeil museun yoiriya

  • Tomorrow is friday.

내일은 금요일이야.naeileun geumyoiriya

  • What day is July 4th? 

7월 4일이 무슨 요일입니까?-chil wol sa iri museun yoirimnikka?

  • July 4th is monday.

7월 4일은 월요일입니다.- chil wol sa ireun woryoirimnida

How Do You Say Today In Korean?

The basic way to say today in Korean 오늘 [oh-neul].but the words 금일 (geumil), 요즘 (yojeum), and 오늘날 (one ullal) also mean the today in Korean.

however, it depends on the meaning you want to express like 

The word “요즘 (yojeum)” literally means “present day,” but When talking about the present vs. the past, it is usually used as “today”. Just Use it as an adverb or noun, and place it at the beginning of a sentence.

Sample Sentences Using Today in Korean

• Today is Tuesday, right?

오늘이 화요일 맞지? – oneuri hwayoil matjji

• What did you do today?

오늘뭐했어? – oh-neul mwo haesso?

• I just got paid today. I’ll treat you to dinner tonight.

난 오늘 월급받았어. 오늘 저녁은 내가 살게.

nan oneul wolkkeupppadasso. oneul jonyogeun naega salge

• Are you busy today?

오늘 바쁘세요?- oneul bappeuseyo

How To Say Tomorrow In Korean Language?

Here is how to say “Tomorrow” in Korean, which is 내일 (naeil). But sometimes Koreans also use two other words i.e. 장래 (jangnae) and 명일 (myeongil). 

내일 (naeil) and 명일 (myeongil) are the same. The only difference is that 명일 (myeongil) comes from China and is rarely used in everyday conversation (used for official and academic purposes)

Now let’s make some simple sentences

• Tomorrow is Friday.

내일은 금요일이에요-naeireun geumyoirieyo

• I have a piano lesson tomorrow.

난 내일 피아노 교습이 있어. – nan naeil piano gyoseubi isso

• See you tomorrow

내일 보자 -naeil boja

How To Say Yesterday In Korean Language?

Yesterday is a bit difficult word to translate into Korean. 

The word 어제 (eoje), literally translated as yesterday in Korean. But there’s another way to say yesterday which is 작일 (jagil). The only difference between This word 작일 (jagil) and 어제 (eoje) is 작일 (jagil) loan word from Chinese and only used in academics.

So, Let’s dive deeper with examples, shall we?  

EXAMPLE SENTENCES

• Isn’t it cold yesterday?

어제는 춥지 않니?- eojeneun chubji anhni?

• It snowed a lot yesterday.

어제 눈이 많이 왔어요.-oje nuni mani wassoyo

How To Count Weeks In Korean ? The Correct Way

To count weeks in Korean, you first need to use the Sino Korean numbers and add 주/주일 (Chu /Chu-eel) at the end. Both 주일 or 주 mean the same thing when you’re talking about two or three weeks, but Korean people prefer to use 주 for four weeks and up. 

Here’s the structure to count weeks in Korean : 

Sino Korean numbers + 주/주일(Chu /Chu-eel)

Here is how to count weeks in Korean language with translation and pronunciation.

• one week –일주일-iljuil 

• two weeks – 이 주일 (이 주*)-  I-chu-il          

• three weeks – 삼 주일 (삼 주*) – Sam-chu-il

• four weeks -사 주 – Sa-chu-il

• five weeks – 오 주 – O-chu-il

• six weeks – 육 주 – Yuk-chu-il

• seven weeks – 칠 주 – Chil-chu-il

• eight weeks – 팔 주 – Pal-chu-il

Weekly/every week- 매주 (mae-ju)

• Weekend in Korean – 주말 (ju-mal)

• Weekday in Korean -평일 (pyeong-il)

• Once a week – 일주일에 한번(iljuire hanbon)

• twice a week-일주일에 두 번-iljuire du bon

• Once every four weeks – 4주에 한 번-sa jue han bon

• This week- 이번주 (i-beon-ju)

• Last week – 지난주 (ji-nan-ju)

• Next week – 다음주 (da-eum-ju)

• On the weekend – 주말에-jumare

• During the week – 주말 동안-jumal dongan

• The Week before last- 지지난주 (ji-ji-nan-ju)

• The Week after next week – 다다음주 (da-da-eum-ju)

• This Friday – 이번 금요일- ibon geumyoil

• Next Sunday -다음 일요일- daeum iryoil

• Monday evening -월요일 저녁-woryoil jonyok

• Friday night – 금요일 밤- geumyoil bam

• Thursday morning – 목요일 아침- mogyoil achim

• Last Tuesday – 지난 화요일-jinan hwayoil

• every Tuesday – 매주 화요일-maeju hwayoil

• Next weekend – 다음 주말-daeum jumal

The original article was published on https://fluenttongue.com/days-of-the-week-in-korean/

 

 

 

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