Recent Blog Posts
Having a festival in honour of them seems a little sadistic...but I guess Ulsan City feels like they are honouring the tradition more than the illegal, but still in fervent practice of whaling. (Although the South Korean are doing something about it, and it's nice to know they dropped their stupid plans to reintroduce "scientific whaling" a few years back.)
Personally I like whale meat, what little I have had has been quite delicious and not at all like I imagined (for a sea creature). If you have issues with eating whale meat let me break it down for you:
You are a vegetarian/vegan: That's cool.
You are otherwise a meat eater: Piss off. (See also, meat eaters who have a problem with dog meat.)
Of course the Ulsan Whale Festival is not all about feasting on flesh. There are the typical Korean festival stalls that promote other festivals and regions in South Korea like a big fat hippy love-in and random bits of art, sculptures and floats including reenactments of early whale fishing by historians. There are probably lanterns and fireworks in the evening too.
There is also a dragon boat race that last year some friends trained hard for and participated in. Strangely, (but most likely for safety reasons*) the Korean and foreigner boat race competitions were kept separate last year (a fact that did not stop mixing within the teams themselves of course). This year all foreigners have been excluded from the boat race part of this festival, so I hear...
Whatever the reasons, banning people from taking part (if it is true, I'm struggling to find anything beyond the words of mouths) on the basis of nationality is fucking stupid. From what I saw last year there were people acting like pricks and others being perfectly civil in equal number during both competitions. As is wont to happen when you allow large groups of people to get together in celebration with alcohol.
UPDATEZ: So it turns out the amateur foreigner friendly dragon boat race was cancelled (according to T-Hope, a charity in Ulsan that coordinates with festival) but after strong words of protest the race is now back on, April 26th, from 9:00-12:30am. For those who want to take part check out the event page here. This year T-Hope will be raising money for Ulsan Orphanage & Lotus Children (a group that works Austistic children) for their summer activities.
*Safety yes, also the 'foreigner' races were amateur in status, hence the separation
If you are one of my mates from last year here's a few pics below:
By Pablo Harris
3am was the loneliest time for Paul on the deserted streets amidst the hundreds of high-rise condos in Myeongji New Town. But it was there, in those late nights/early mornings, that he always felt a contented kind of loneliness. So he walked down to the Family Mart, dropped W12,000 on a calling card that would give him 47 minutes to call the West Coast and cracked a tall boy of Cass. He walked down to the water and sat on a concrete wall along the estuary of the Nakdong and began to dial.
A growly voice answered with a simple, “Hell-low?”
“Hey, Big T, it’s Pablo. What up, man?”
“Ehrmm, yeah, what’s up man?”
“Not up to much, just checking on you, man. It’s been a while.”
“Yeah, it’s been a while. But, yeah, I’m good.”
“Cool. You know, just checking, wondering; how’d the rest of Hutty’s bachelor party, Vegas weekend go?”
“Ah shit, man. Yeah, I told you that Raj ordered up a couple of kind Vagitarian Delight pies to Hutty’s suite, yeah?”
“Yes you did.”
“Ah, Ginger, yeah, we would’ve had to restrain you from her.”
“Yeah you told me that, too.”
“Shit, I know I called you from the Caesar’s sportsbook but I don’t know what we talked about. I just know sittin’ there all day, bettin’, drinkin’, and watching all those games, hoping to hit a parlay. And with all the pony madness going on. It’s a fucking beautiful strange magic. Wish you were there, brotha.”
“I can imagine the magic, the nervous energy which turns to excitement in direct proportion with how many bloodies and Heinekens are drunk, then the bitterness after buying a few Jame-os because a piddly exacta finally came in and the parlay hasn’t been totally blown yet and you think your luck has changed. And here comes the heat streak but no dice Chino, ‘colder than a well-diggers ass’. Yeah, March Madness and ponies, I’m sure that’s pretty cool and if I was there with all you guys, all that action, all those titty balls, I wouldn’t know what to do with myself. But, actually, I did a little gambling of my own that weekend.”
“Oh yeah. Tell me about it.”
* * *
The road out of Tongyeong was at a standstill. Paul and Ellie both felt chills from the palpably frozen silence. After what seemed like hours, Ellie finally broke the ice.
“It’s going to take over three hours to get home. And I just want to go home.”
“Well, yeah, but we’re stuck here. Maybe then… Maybe we should talk about what happened at lunch?”
“I don’t know. Why? Why did you snap at me like that? You were really mean and I’m so foolish for thinking that you really cared.”
“Look, I’m sorry. I’m sorry I snapped. At first, I was excited to hear my boy call me but then it sent me on a weird one. Big T was giving me shit for not being at this bachelor party and not being in this wedding coming up. And then, well, I feel remorse for not being there last month when his father died. And where was I last year when my Aunt Cecelia, my favorite aunt, passed away? Sometimes, I can’t be there for my family and my best friend when they need me and it eats me up. I don’t know how to deal with it. I either deal with grief and regret by drinking on the quiet or lashing out at someone and I’m sorry for that. And maybe I freaked out because I’m scared of falling for you and don’t know when I’m going home again because I’m stoked here. With you. In Busan. In Korea. And my life here. I don’t know how to deal with these conflicts and, even worse, don’t know how to deal with happiness.”
Ellie unclasped the belt and leaned over, placed her hand on his knee, and kissed his neck three times. She smiled and comfortably retreated to her seat.
“Yeah, sweetheart, let’s get home, make out, and make up.”
“Yeah, but this Sunday traffic is the worst. I told you It’s going to take over 3 hours to get home.”
“Nah, this will break soon, it’s gotta break soon, right?”
“I think it’s going to take a few hours to get home.”
“Nah, relax, it’ll break.”
“Do you wanna bet on it?”
“Yeah, Ellie, didn’t know that you were a gambler but, sure. Let’s bet.”
“Ok, how should we do it?”
“Well, maybe an ‘over-under’ bet?”
“Well, you pick a time, like say, 2 hours in traffic, and then I bet whether we’ll be in traffic for over 2 hours or under 2 hours, if I’m right, I win. If I choose wrong, you win.”
“Ok, but how about you pick the time and I pick over or under?”
“Ok, I say we are going to be stuck in this jam for one hour.”
“We are definitely going to be in traffic for over an hour, you are going to lose my friend, I pick ‘over’.”
“Ok, bet’s on.”
“How do we know when traffic’s break and someone has won and lost?”
“Don’t worry, we’ll just know.”
About 15 minutes went by, they’d moved maybe 3 miles or so, Paul asked: “You know, we never said what we’re playing for, like what do I get if I win?”
“Well, whatever you want.”
“Let me be clear, ‘whatever I want’?”
“Yeah, and I get whatever I want when I win.”
“Wow, you are a gambler, Babe.”
“Maybe. I am Korean, you know.”
“Great. Now move out of the way you mother fuckers!”
“Sorry, uh, I don’t like to lose.”
“Either do I but you don’t have to yell at these people. Anyway, they’re not going anywhere and we’re not going anywhere for a long time.”
“Son of whores,” Paul swore dejectedly under his breath.
“I heard that. Anyway, what do you want if you win?”
“Do you really have to ask?”
“Really? Guys are so simple, come on.”
Paul just shrugged and nodded.
“Well, what do you want if you win?”
“I don’t know, but it’s going to be nasty.”
“No, not like that. I can’t pick anything sexual because you’ll just like it. It’s going to be nasty as in really mean, nasty.”
“Yeah, like what?”
“I don’t know yet, I got to think about it. How about at 4:30 we’ll say what will be our prizes.”
“Good idea, I suppose I should try thinking a bit instead of just going with the usual go-to.”
“What’s your usual go-to?”
“Tell you at 4:30.”
Another fifteen minutes go by, another 3-5 miles, then Ellie inquired about the prize: “So what is it you want if you win?”
“Well, I decided I can’t just go with my go-to blowjob with -”
She interrupted, a bit perturbed, “Come on! I just gave you a blow job yesterday, I give you blowjobs all the time!”
He glanced at her with a raised eyebrow.
“Ok, maybe not all the time but I’m not shy about it either.”
“Fair enough. You are right and that’s why I decided I can’t just choose a blowjob for this victory but you didn’t let me finish what I was going to say: a blowjob with your glasses on.”
What he really wanted to request as his reward was a facial on her glasses a la jizzonmyglasses.com but figured it’s too early in whatever you call this relationship to go for that.
“Jeez, do glasses really matter that much to you?”
“We’ll discuss that later. Back to the issue at hand. So, like I was saying, I couldn’t go with the usual because you did such a good job of taking care of me yesterday and I thought about making you dress up and do something special for my birthday -”
“Dress up how?”
“Haven’t figured it out yet. But then I thought it’s my birthday, I shouldn’t have to use my capital from winning a bet on my birthday.”
“True, it’s your birthday, it’s your day and it only happens once a year.”
“Then I thought about making you spend the night with me tonight because you’ve never slept with me on a school night and last night was great and I just ate a ton of raw fish and oysters this weekend, you know what that does to me -”
“All right, tell me already, come on!”
“Do you know ‘Spanish-style’?
After about 45 white-knuckle, sweaty-palm nervous minutes, Paul saw the freeway split: one way going up through the middle of the country through Daejeon to Seoul, the other, a veer to the right onto the Namhae Highway to Jinhae, Masan, Busan, up the coast to the DMZ. As he hit the on-ramp he got over 40km for the first time in three-quarters of an hour. 46 minutes after the clock had started, he was doing 120km.
She conceded. Paul raised one finger in the air and triumphantly proclaimed, “Winner, Winner, baby-oiled breasts for dinner!”
“So, Spanish-style, uh, does that mean, like, titty fuck?”
“I don’t like my breasts. My mom says they’re too big because she says I’m fat.”
“Ridiculous. Just because a tall, curvy girl in all the right places gets judged for somehow being overweight? Bullshit.”
“And, really, that’s what you want for your birthday?”
“Such a boob guy! But I’m glad you are.”
* * *
Big T sarcastically replied to Paul, “That’s great, Pablo. And I thought I was a big winner because I left Vegas only down a couple hundy.”
“And now you’re going to do some perverted shit to this poor girl. I know you, you sick fuck. I fucking hate you now more than ever.”
“Yep. I understand.”
MS Motel from the outside
Two super comfortable queen sized beds
Shower 1 of 3
Fancy blue bath salts
In Korea, it’s common practice that the female does the gifting on Valentine’s Day (and males return the favor on White Day [March 14]). This year, I treated my boyfriend to a holiday in neighboring city, Daejeon.
After thoughtful reconnaissance behind the Daejeon bus terminal, we found the best love motel, MS Motel (엠에스모텔). Granted, the name isn’t particularly clever and the outside decor isn’t the most awe-inspiring, but I promise you it was the best inside. We popped in and out of several motel rooms —and this was the best by far.
I suggest getting the best room (60,000₩ a night), which has two extremely comfortable queen sized beds, three showers, one bathtub, and a 3D TV. If you ask nicely, the employees will help you order delivery, and you’ll have food straight to your room (a major plus in my eyes).
About the girl
Thank you so much for visiting and reading.
The Boje-ru Pavilion in the background behind the Cheonwangmun at Donghwasa Temple in Daegu.
Hello Again Everyone!!
The next entry in the series of postings on rarely seen things you might encounter at a Korean temple or hermitage is the Boje-ru Pavilion.
The Universal Salavation Pavilion, or the Boje-ru Pavilion (보제루) is the fifth, and final, gate in the set of gates that potentially can be found at a larger sized temple. It’s positioned after the Bulimun Gate, and it usually hides the main temple courtyard that’s situated behind its rather long length.
So what does a Boje-ru Pavilion look like? Why is it located where it is at a temple? And what is the meaning behind it?
The massive Boje-ru Pavilion at Geumsansa Temple in Gimje, Jeollabuk-do.
In Korean, the word “Boje” means universal salvation. This refers to the casting of a net across the Samgye, which is desire, the realm of form, and the formless realm. This net is cast to rescue all sentient beings. The final character in the name, “ru,” is a Chinese character that means a raised pavilion or building of two or more stories.
A fine example of the pavilion at Naesosa Temple in Buan, Jeollabuk-do.
A look under the pavilion at Naesosa Temple with paper wishes hanging from the ceiling.
First, the Boje-ru is a pavilion, unlike the other four structures that potentially welcome you to the temple grounds. It is made up of two stories. The first story serves as a passageway, and final entrance, to the main temple courtyard. Instead of supportive beams, there can be two storage areas to the right and left of the stairway that leads up to the main temple courtyard. On the second floor, there rests an open pavilion. The exterior walls are typically very colourful with winged-shaped roofs.
The large-sized Boje-ru that welcomes you to Pagyesa Temple in Daegu.
The corridor and stairs that lead up to Pagyesa Temple.
Some of the meaning behind this temple building rests on the first floor of its design. In older Boje-ru designs, the ceiling can be quite low. This is deliberately done so that visitors to a temple or hermitage have to stoop. This is done as a gesture of humility, as they pass through the pavilion. On the second floor of this structure is where monastic lectures and non-ceremonial dharma assemblies (beophoe) are conducted simply because they are too large to be done inside the main hall. Also, in some smaller sized temples, Buddhist musical instruments can be housed in the second floor pavilion. And some Boje-ru were used as protection against armed forces like the Japanese after the Imjin War (1592-98). A great example of this can be found at Okcheonsa Temple in Goseong, Gyeongsangnam-do. Specifically, it was used for military training and guarding the temple buildings from invaders.
The militarized Boje-ru at Okcheonsa Temple in Goseong, Gyeongsangnam-do.
And a look inside the second floor open pavilion at Okcheonsa Temple.
My program is amazing, and they've brought in a graduate of the masters program I hope to enter to teach an additional evening course (for college credit) on Korean literature for free. It's a shitload of work, but that, in addition to one other Korean lit class I'm taking, should give me a sufficient foothold in beginning to learn how to write about and interpret literature in Korean. If you had told me four months ago that I would be, at this point, writing essays interpreting poetry in Korean, I would have laughed you out of the room. But you only find out what you're capable of doing by trying, and you only become capable of doing it by.... well, by doing it.
I still stumble a bit through my daily life in Korean. Speaking will forever and always be my weakest skill, but sitting down to explain Frank O'Hara (for example) in Korean is bringing me a lot closer to the language in a very short amount of time. Studying has become less of a task and more of a longed-for return to writing about the things I really care about. And my critical writing was never very fancy-pants to begin with, so what I've realized over the past month is that there's really nothing that I want to say that I can't, with a little bit of editing spit shine put on it by a teacher or Busan.
These two courses alone have taken me from seeing the idea of entering a masters program in Korean literature as a ridiculous fucking notion to something that, with a little elbow grease and maybe more than a few all-nighters, there's really no reason I can't do.
So for now, my blogging will stay short, because I need my sleep where I can get it (I'm also now working a part time translation job). And I'll sit and wait for the results of the scholarship I've applied to. But one way or another, I can't see the road back to where I came from, from here.
Today is 블랙데이 (Black day)! Koreans celebrate this day (“Singles’ Day”) by eating black noodles called 자장면 (jajangmyeon). Hope you enjoy the little comic strip my students and I made today to celebrate.
Third Person Pronouns & Demonstratives
Third person pronouns (三人稱代名詞, 3인칭대명사) are those pronouns that refer to someone or something else besides the speaker and the audience. Examples in English include, “he,” “him,” “she,” “her,” “it,” et cetera. Unlike English but like Korean, third person pronouns in Classical Chinese lack gender and describe what is being referred to within some external spatial frame of reference. (In linguistics jargon, this frame of reference is called spatial deixis.) These are called demonstratives (指示代名詞, 지시대명사). Examples of English demonstrative include “this,” “these,” “that,” and “those.” Similar to English and Korean, most demonstratives in Classical Chinese can be used as either determiners (冠形詞, 관형사) modifying the word coming after it or as standalone pronouns (代名詞, 대명사). One of the challenges in interpreting demonstratives is in determining whether the character is being used as a determiner or a standalone third person pronoun. Based on their frame of reference, Classical Chinese demonstratives can be classified into four categories: (1) proximal (近稱, 근칭), (2) medial (中稱, 중칭), (3) distal (遠稱, 원칭), and (4) generic (總稱, 총칭).
Proximal demonstrative are those words that refer to something close to the frame of reference. In English, these correspond to “this” or “these.” In Korean, the proximal demonstrative is 이. In Classical Chinese, the characters used are: 是(시), 此(차), 斯(사), 玆(자), 這(저), and 焉(언), which is an abbreviation of 於(어)+此(차). Note that 玆 is not often used as a demonstrative as the other characters listed and 這 is seen only in much later Classical Chinese texts.
This certainly is a person whose talents are sound but whose virtues is not shown.
► Zhaungzi (莊子, 장자), Inner Chapters (內篇, 내편), Seal of Virtue Complete (德充符, 덕충부).
To end but to begin again, the sun and moon are [like] this.
► Sun Tzu’s Art of War (孫子兵法, 손자병법), Strength (勢, 세).
Upon this day, [we] release our sighs and loudly wail.
► Imperial Capital Gazette (皇城新聞, 황성신문), Nov. 11, 1905 Edition by Jang Jiyeon (張志淵, 장지연, 1864-1921).
有道伐無道, 此天理也, 所從來久矣.
유도벌무도, 차천리야, 소종래구의.
[What] has the Way strikes [what] does not have the Way. This is heaven’s principle. Where it originated came from long ago.
► Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals (春秋繁露, 춘추번로) by Dong Zhongshu (董仲舒, 동중서, 176-104BC).
If these enemies are removed, then if [we] die there will be no regret.
► Complete Works of Admiral Yi Sunshin (李忠武公全書, 이충무공전서).
These following [articles] establish a treaty of commerce and amity.
► Treaty of Amity and Commerce between the United States of America and Korea of 1882 (朝美修好通商條約, 조미수호통상조약).
Those [things] that depart are like this: [they] do not cease day and night.
► Analects (論語, 논어), Zi Han (子罕, 자한).
When an elder fakes being happy or being angry, this shames the small child.
► A Book on the Ear, Eye, Mouth, and Heart (耳目口心書, 이목구심서) by Yi Deokmu (李德懋, 이덕무, 1741-1793).
Ascending this pagoda to gaze at four [directions], somehow on [this] leisurely day [my] worries have disappeared.
► A Lyric on Ascending the Pagoda (登樓賦, 등루부) by Wan Can (王粲, 왕찬, 177-217).
King Wen (周文王, 주문왕, 1152-1056 BC) has already passed away, but does culture not reside in this [place]?
► Analects (論語, 논어), Zi Han (子罕, 자한).
This is an ostrich’s egg. [It] can cure strange diseases that are difficult to name.
► Jehol Journal (熱河日記, 열하일기) by Pak Jiwon (朴趾源, 박지원, 1737-1805).
This controversy is extremely lucid; [it] is not very easy.
► Records of the Teachers and Friends of the Eastern Confucians (東儒師友錄, 동유수우록) by Pak Sechae (朴世采, 박세채, 1631-1695).
然, 昔者吾舅死於虎, 吾夫又死焉.
연, 석자오구사어호, 오부우사언.
Yes, a long time ago my father-in-law was killed by a tiger. My husband again was killed by this (於+此) [tiger].
► Record of Rites (禮記, 예기), Tan Gong Part II (檀弓下, 단궁하).
Medial demonstratives are those words that refer to something not too close but not too far from the frame of reference. There are no equivalents in English, although they can be thought of as “that” and “those.” Oftentimes, it might be suitable to translate these demonstratives as “he,” “she,” or “it.” In Korean, medial demonstrative is 그. The characters used are: 其(기) and 厥(궐).
Man’s nature is evil. Those who [claim that it is] good are lying.
► Xun Zi (荀子, 순자, 312-230 BC), Nature is Evil (性惡, 성악).
北冥有魚, 其名爲鯤. 鯤之大, 不知其幾千里也.
북명유어, 기명위곤. 곤지대, 불지기기천리야.
In the Northern Oceans, there is a fish. Its name is Kun (鯤, 곤). [As for] Kun’s size, [I] do not know its [size] in how many thousand li (里,리).
► Zhuangzi (莊子, 장자), Inner Chapters (內篇, 내편), Enjoyment in Untroubled Ease (逍遙遊, 소요유).
Now, there are rice grains in the middle of this bottle of ten dou (斗, 두) (180 liters). [I] do not know its number.
►The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art (九章算術, 구장산술), To Fill Not Sufficiently (盈不足, 영부족).
For those who have newly constructed stores, exempt their shopping stores for five years.
► The Following Records of Ban’gye (磻溪隨錄, 반계수록), On Currency (錢幣, 전폐) by Yu Hyeongweon (柳馨遠, 유형원, 1622-1673).
寡君聞楚爲不道, 荐伐吳國, 滅厥民人.
과군문초위불도, 천벌오국, 멸궐민인.
Our lord heard that the Chu (楚, 초) did not pursue the Way (道, 도), and recommended [that we] strike the Wu State (吳, 오) and exterminate their people.
► Zhou’s Commentary on the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋左傳, 춘추좌전), Duke Ai (哀公, 애공), Fifteenth Year of Duke Ai’s Reign (哀公十五年, 애공십오년).
The farmers die of starvation. They lay on their seeds.
► A Collection of Heard Words (耳談續纂, 이담속찬) by Jeong Yakyong (丁若鏞, 정약용, 1762-1836).
If the medicine makes [him] not dizzy and somber, then his illness has not been cured.
► Classic of History (書經, 서경), Charge to Yue Part I (說命上, 열명상).
Distal demonstratives are those words that refer to something far from the frame of reference. In English, these correspond to “that” or “those.” To elucidate the distinction between medial and distal, it might be better to conceptualize the latter as “that over there” or “those over there.” Similar to medial demonstratives, they can be often translated as “he,” “she,” or “it” in English. In Korean, the distal demonstrative is 저. In Classical Chinese, the characters used are: 彼(피) and 夫(부). Note that there are at times where 夫 need not be translated.
Having traded something small for something large, how will those [people] know it?
► Mencius (孟子, 맹자), Liang Hui Wang Part I (梁惠王上, 양혜왕상).
What kind of Gisaeng (妓生, 기생) is Gang Namhong (江南紅, 강남홍) for [her] intentions and discerning eye to be similar to that [person's] elegance?
►Dreams in the Jade Tower (玉樓夢, 옥루몽) by Nam Yeongro (南永魯, 남영로, ?-?).
[I] have ascended that mountain in the west, and have plucked its ferns.
► Records of the Grand Historian (史記, 사기), Biography of Bo Yi (伯夷列傳, 백이열전).
That old man transformed into a white crane and flew away.
► Precious Mirror of Eastern Medicine (東醫寶鑑, 동의보감), Inner Scene Chapter (內景篇, 내경편) by Heo Jun (許浚, 허준, 1539-1615).
Those three people’s words, what were [they]?
► Analects (論語, 논어), Xian Jin (先進, 선진).
I was wrong. That man was right.
► Record of Rites (禮記, 예기), Tan Gong Part I (檀弓上, 단궁상).
Little child, why did you not study poetry?
► Analects (論語, 논어), Yang Huo (陽貨, 양화).
Generic third person pronouns are those without any frame of reference. That is, they can refer to anyone or anything proximal, medial, or distal. These are similar to English third person pronouns and thus can be translated to “he,” “she,” or “it.” Likewise, in Korean, these can be any of 이, 그, and 저. In Classical Chinese, the characters used are: 他(타), 渠(거), 伊(이), 之(지), and 諸(제), which is an abbreviation for 之(지)+於(어). Note that: 他 is more often used to mean “other” or “another”; 渠 is used as a pronoun beginning in later Classical Chinese texts; and 之 is only used as a standalone pronoun and only functions as an object referring to something or someone described previously.
If [you] quickly return his horse, [I] will forgive your transgressions.
► Book of the Later Han (後漢書, 후한서), Biographies of Alchemists (方術列傳, 방술열전).
The daughter’s husband came yesterday. It must be he who stole.
► Records of the Three Kingdoms (三國志, 삼국지), Book of Wu (吳書, 오서), Biography of Zhao Da (趙達傳, 조달전).
He already needed to become clean and pure (Taoist term) and quietly destroy [himself] (Buddhist term). How was [he] not to sit in Zen meditation?
► Arranged Words of Master Zhu (朱子語類, 주자어류), On Sakyumi (釋氏, 석씨).
It rained once for three days. Whose power is it?
► Record of the Happy Rain Pavilion (喜雨亭記, 희우정기) by Su Shi (蘇軾, 소식, 1037-1101).
Do not learn from your older brother: your older brother by himself was no more like him!
► A New Account of the Tales of the World (世說新語, 세설신어), Evaluation (品藻, 품조) by Liu Yiqing (劉義慶, 유의경, 430-444).
But the four [beginnings] (四端, 사단) are emitted [from] the principle force (理, 리) and the material force (氣, 기) follows it.
► Reply to Ki Myeong’eon (答奇明彦, 답기명언) by Yi Hwang (李滉, 이황, 1502-1571).
I, Shen (參, 삼), am not nimble. How am [I] sufficient to know it?
► Classic of Filial Piety (孝經, 효경), The Scope and Meaning of the Treatise (開宗明義, 개종명의).
我皆令入, 無餘涅槃, 而滅度之.
아개령입, 무여열반, 이멸도지.
We all will make [them] enter, without remainder, into nirvana, and will liberate them.
► Diamond Sutra (金剛般若波羅蜜經, 금강반야바라밀경).
祝訖, 遂擲之, 生果勝.
축흘, 수척지, 생과승.
[He] prayed exerting [himself], finally chucked them, and became in the end victorious.
► The New Tale of the Golden Terrapin (金鰲新話, 금오신화) by Kim Shiseup (金時習, 김시습, 1435-1493).
Cui Ming (崔明, 최명, Choe Myeong, ?-?) at night buried him in (之+於) the large tomb.
► Commentaries of Zhou on the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋左傳, 춘추좌전), Duke of Xiang of Lu (襄公, 양공).
Translation: '사랑' 사전적 정의 '이성애 기준'으로 되돌아갔다 The Dictionary Definition of Love Has Restored to a Heterosexual Basis
From Naver News:
'사랑'에 관한 국립국어원 표준국어대사전의 뜻풀이가 대학생들의 제안으로 '성(性) 중립적'인 쪽으로 바뀌었다가 항의 민원이 빗발치자 1년여 만에 원래 정의로 되돌려진 사실이 뒤늦게 확인됐다.
After following university students' desire to change the definition of love in the Standard National Korean Dictionary, a shower of civil complaints led to returning to the original definition after a bit over a year.
31일 국립국어원 표준국어대사전 웹페이지에서 검색한 '사랑'의 4번째 정의는 '남녀 간에 그리워하거나 좋아하는 마음. 또는 그런 일'로, 사랑을 남성과 여성이라는 생물학적 이성 간 벌어지는 행위로 풀이했다.
On the 31st of March, looking up love on the Standard Dictionary, the fourth definition of love defines it as "The feeling of longing for or liking someone between men and women as well as related actions" explaining it as a biologically originated reason.
국어원은 앞서 2012년 대학생 5명이 국민신문고를 통해 "이성애 중심적인 언어가 성 소수자 차별을 만든다"며 사랑의 정의를 바꾸자고 제안하자 이를 수용, 그해 11월 표준국어대사전에서 사랑과 관련한 5개 단어의 뜻풀이를 변경한 바 있다.
Earlier in 2012 the National Institute of the Korean Language accommodated 5 university students who argued that the definition of love should be changed as "a gender focused word enforces discrimination against sexual minorities". In November of that year the dictionary changed the definition of 5 words relating to love.
당시 뜻이 바뀐 단어는 '사랑' '연애' '애정' '연인' '애인' 등 5개였다.
The five words were 'love', 'dating', 'affection', 'couple' and 'lover'.
'사랑'은 '어떤 상대의 매력에 끌려 열렬히 그리워하거나 좋아하는 마음', '연애'는 '연인 관계인 두 사람이 서로 그리워하고 사랑함', '애정'은 '애인을 간절히 그리워하는 마음', '연인'은 '서로 열렬히 사랑하는 관계에 있는 두 사람. 또는 몹시 그리며 사랑하는 사람', '애인'은 '서로 열렬히 사랑하는 사람'으로 각각 뜻풀이가 바뀌었다.
'Love' was defined as 'Feeling drawn to someone's charm and enthusiastically longing and liking that person', 'dating' as 'the longing between two lovers', 'affection' as 'the feeling for ardently longing for your partner', and 'couple' as 'the enthusiastic love between two people. Furthermore, extremely longing for your loved one', and 'lover' was changed to 'enthusiastic love of another person.'
이들 단어의 행위 주체를 전통적 성 관념상 성별인 '남녀'로 명시하지 않고 동성애자 등 성 소수자까지 포괄할 여지를 둔 셈이다.
These words did not stipulate male or female and included space for sexual minorities.
그러나 기독교계 등 일부에서 "동성애를 옹호한다"는 문제제기가 잇따르자 국어원은 이들 단어에 대한 내부 재검토를 거쳐 지난 1월 '사랑' '연애' '애정' 등 3개 단어의 행위 주체를 '남녀'로 되돌렸다.
But groups like the Catholic Church etc in part argued that 'supporting homosexuals' would lead to problem after problem, and after the National Institute of the Korean Language re-examined the words it restored the original definitions of 'love', 'dating', and 'affection'.
국어원의 한 관계자는 "여러 곳에서 문제제기가 들어와 말뭉치 등 언어자료를 검토하고 공식 심의절차를 거쳐 사전적 정의를 다시 바꿨다"며 "'연인'과 '애인'은 '사랑'의 뜻을 따라가므로 그대로 뒀다"고 밝혔다.
One person connected with the National Institute of the Korean Language illuminated that 'After inspection procedures in response to the lodging of problems with the words were carried out, we once again changed the definitions" and "'Couple' and 'lover' stayed as before with love in their meaning."
이 관계자는 "국어사전은 실제로 쓰이고 있는 언어적 자료를 모아 수록하는 것뿐"이라며 "재변경 이전 뜻풀이는 한쪽에서 보면 오해할 소지가 있다고 판단돼 전형적인 쪽을 기준으로 바꾼 것"이라고 설명했다.
This person also explained "The National Dictionary is collecting true language materials" and said "that on avoiding misunderstanding of the changed words from one side we have changed them back to the paragon".