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Korean Conjunctions: Basic Sentence Connectors

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Today we’re going to connect you with Korean conjunctions! These useful tools will help you express your ideas when talking, writing, or texting in Korean.

We’ll show you the common Korean conjunctions and sentence connectors that Koreans use on a daily basis.

Let’s get to it!

Two hands putting together two different puzzle pieces

Simple Response in a Conversation

그래요, 그렇습니다 (geurae, geuraeyo, geureoseumnida) = OK, That’s right, Got it

This is a basic response in a conversation, in each level of politeness. We recommend using 그래요 (geuraeyo) since it’s considered polite but still good for everyday conversations.

그렇습니다 (geureoseumnida) is the formal version you might use at the office in a speech. You would use 그래 (geurae) with someone younger than you or someone who you’re on close terms with.

For example:

A: 우리 내일 5시에 만날까? (uri naeil 5sie mannalkka?)

Shall we meet tomorrow at 5:00?

B: 그래! (geurae!)


Several lightbulbs hanging upside down with faces painted onto them

Sentence Connectors

그렇지만 (geureochiman) = But, however

The 그렇다 verb translates simply as “yes”. However, when you attach ~지만 (jiman) to its stem, you are forming a word that means “That’s correct, but…”, which you can then follow with the contradiction to what you are responding to.

For example:

오늘 친구랑 영화보러 가고 싶어요. 그렇지만 내일 시험 있어서 공부해야 해요. (oneul chingurang yeonghwaboreo gago sipeoyo. geureochiman naeil siheom isseoseo gongbuhaeya haeyo.)

I want to go see a movie with a friend today. However, I have an exam tomorrow so I have to study.

~지만 (geureochiman) = But, although

With this, you can unify the two sentences into one sentence.

For example:

오늘 친구랑 영화보러 가고 싶지만 내일 시험 있어서 공부해야 해요. (oneul chingurang yeonghwaboreo gago sipchiman naeil siheom isseoseo gongbuhaeya haeyo.)

Although I want to see a movie with a friend today, I have to study for an exam I have tomorrow.

그런데 (geureonde) = But, however, by the way

This one can also be used to form a contradiction, just like 그렇지만. However, it is better used to relate the two clauses with each other. It’s the form often used among friends. It can be used to change topics. The shortened form is 근데, with the same meaning.

For example:

어제 하루종일 잤어요. 그런데 오늘 피곤해요. (eoje harujongil jasseoyo. geureonde oneul pigonhaeyo.)

I slept all day yesterday. But today I am tired.

~ㄴ/는데 (~n/neunde) = But, however, though

Similarly to ~지만, with this you can directly connect the two sentences into one. Like this:

어제 하루종일 잤는데 오늘 피곤해요. (eoje harujongil jatneunde oneul pigonhaeyo.)

Though I slept all day yesterday I’m tired today.

그러나 (geureona) = But, or

This one is similar in meaning with 그렇지만 and 그런데. However, in comparison to the two, it is more formal and you’d most often see it used in literary or academic papers. Of all the Korean conjunctions on this list, this is the one you’ll most likely only see on paper.

~나 (na) = Or

With this, you can connect two nouns between which to choose.

For example:

오늘 뭘 먹을까? 고기나 치킨? (oneul mwol meogeulkka? gogina chikin?)

What shall we eat today? Meat or chicken?

~거나 (geona) = Or

This has the same meaning as the above, but it is used to connect two verbs.

For example:

수업이 끝나면 영화보거나 집에 갈 거예요. (sueobi kkeunnamyeon yeonghwabogeona jibe gal geoyeyo.)

When the class ends I will either watch a movie or go home.

아니면 (animyeon) = Or, unless, if not

You can use this similarly to the conjunctions ~나 and ~거나. For example, you can use it instead of ~나 or together with ~거나. You can also use it between two sentences to make them sound more natural.

For example:

고기를 먹을까요? 아니면 다른 거 먹을까요? (gogireul meogeulkkayo? animyeon dareun geo meogeulkkayo?)

Shall we eat meat? Or shall we eat something else?

Light bulb character holding a finger up to the sky
그리고 (geurigo) = and, and then

You’ve already learned a few ways to say “and” from previous lessons, and here’s another way. Either use this to connect two nouns or as the beginning of another sentence that follows your first one.

For example:

슈퍼에서 우유를 사주세요. 그리고 계란도 사주세요. (syupeoeseo uyureul sajuseyo. geurigo gyerando sajuseyo.)

Please buy milk from the supermarket. And please buy eggs as well.

~고 (~go) = and, and then

This has a nearly identical meaning to 그리고 and is used to connect to actions together, typically in the form of “First X, and then Y”.

For example:

저녁을 먹고 샤워할 거예요. (jeonyeogeul meokgo syawohal geoyeyo.)

I’ll eat dinner and then take a shower.

그래서 (geuraeseo) = So, so that, thus, and so, therefore

The ~서 (seo) ending expresses cause and effect in the verbs it is attached to.

For example:

오늘 하루종일 남자친구한테서 연락을 못 받았어요. 그래서 슬퍼요. (oneul harujongil namjachinguhanteseo yeollageul mot badasseoyo. geuraeseo seulpeoyo.)

I didn’t receive any contact from my boyfriend all day today. Therefore I am sad.

~서 (seo) = Because

As mentioned above, this ending expresses cause and effect.

Like this:

오늘 사탕을 많이 먹어서 배가 아파요. (oneul satangeul mani meogeoseo baega apayo.)

My stomach hurts because I ate a lot of candy today.

그러니까 (geureonikka) = Therefore

This is very similar to 그래서. More so than 그래서, it emphasizes an action made as an effect of the cause.

For example:

그 날 가족과 함께 모일 거예요. 그러니까 생일파티에 못가요. (geu nal gajokgwa hamkke moil geoyeyo. geureonikka saengilpatie motgayo.)

I will do a get together with my family that day. Therefore, I cannot go to the birthday party.

~니까 (nikka) = Because of

Used largely in a similar fashion as ~서. Like, 그러니까, it focuses more on expressing the reason why something could not happen. It can be used in past tense.

For example:

하루종일 잤으니까 폰을 못 봤어요. (harujongil jasseunikka poneul mot bwasseoyo.)

I couldn’t look at my phone because I slept all day.

Hands holding puzzle pieces그러면 (geureomyeon) = If it’s so, in that case

You can use this to start a sentence that expands on information that’s been revealed to you previously in the conversation.

For example:

이번 일요일은 쉬는 날이에요? 그러면 그때 같이 밥을 먹어요. (ibeon illyoireun swineun narieyo? geureomyeon geuttae gachi babeul meogeoyo.)

This Sunday is a resting day? In that case let’s have a meal together then.

~면 (geureomyeon) = If, once

Attaching this to a verb, you can make a sentence saying you’ll do something if you first do X, or once you first do X.

For example:

집에 오면 연락할게요. (jibe omyeon yeollakalgeyo.)

I will contact you once I get home.

그래도 (geuraedo) = Nonetheless, even if, even so, but still, nevertheless

This is used to say something will be done or something will be happening, regardless of what is said in the first sentence.

For example:

어제 머리가 많이 아팠어요. 그래도 친구랑 놀러 갔어요. (eoje meoriga mani apasseoyo. geuraedo chingurang nolleo gasseoyo.)

My head hurt a lot yesterday. Even so, I went to play with a friend.

Hopefully learning these basic sentence connectors for Korean language is useful to advance your studies. Given them a try and write some example sentences using Korean conjunctions in the comments below!

The post Korean Conjunctions: Basic Sentence Connectors appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.

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Photography Resources For The COVID-19 Outbreak

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Over the past few months, the reality of the fact that the COVID-19 virus is not going anywhere and is only getting worse has settled in for many of us. For many, including myself, it also means that we have lost jobs, lost money and are forced to stay home.

It is a difficult time for pretty much everybody. Many photographers are struggling to figure out what to do when the bulk of their work comes from actually going outside. While I am sort of lucky that South Korea is not on full lockdown, many places around the world are. This effectively means that we have to get creative with out time at home to avoid going crazy.

With that being said, how exactly does one “get creative” with this situation and what can a photographer do when they can’t really go outside all that much. It is a time to study and recalibrate your passion.

Study In Depth

All we have is time right now. Most of us area also connected to the internet. So rather than hunkering down into another Netflix binge watching session, we should try and study photography as much as we can. I have hundreds of ebooks from 5DayDeal that I have yet to read and that is where I am starting. If you want some more free resources from 5DayDeal, check out one of their latest newsletters that has tons of great stuff in it.

Creative Live also has a ton of great free content that rotated all the time. These course are categorized into specific areas and one being photography. The reason that I like Creative Live over some youtube channels is that typically these are industry experts and also their are really in depth tutorials rather than just a 2 minute clip stitched into 10 minutes of title tracks and b-roll.

Nikon has 10 free courses on their site right now. They cover a wide range of topics from kids to learning the z50. If you are a Nikon shooter, this may be something that you would want to check out.

The Museum of Modern Art has a free course entitled “Seeing Through Photographs” which looks like a great way to deep dive into what makes a photograph. This takes you through the history of photography with works in the Museum of Modern Art in Manhattan.

LinkedIn Learning, formerly Lynda is another great resource but it is not really free but they do offer a 30 day free trial. So most likely you are like me and have been stuck inside for at least a month. Take this time time to really hammer out these course and make use of your free trial before you have to pay. They also offer a certificate of completion which may also appear on your LinkedIn profile. I am not sure if this is a good thing or a bad thing but you may want to also take this time to spruce up your profile while you are studying.

PHLearn also has tons of free resources to help you fine tune your photography game. There are hundreds of courses here and they have a little bit of everything. Think of areas that you need to work on and fine the topics to study.

Udemy is also another similar site that many people use however it is not free albeit they do have a 30-day money back agreement but you still have to pay first. However, if you watch closely they will have courses on for sale. In march of this year they had a bunch of courses on sale for extremely cheap.

Youtube Photography Channels

Youtube is obviously a great free resource that many photographers use to sharpen skills and entertain themselves. It can be tough to find good channels and not sift through dozens of channels that talk a lot about your topic but never really teach you anything. Here are a few that I like.

Noe Alonzo is a friend and makes amazing videos about cyberpunk urban shots. His no nonsense videos are a great resource to learn this style of photography. Since his channel took off, I have seen more than one photographer here emulate his style and that shows that his videos must be useful.

Fuel Your Photos is a great channel for SEO and areas around keywording and whatnot. It is one of those areas that many photographers don’t think about as they feel that their photos are the stars of the show. However, a quick study here will…. well… fuel your photos.

Jim Nix is a great teacher if you are into Luminar 4 and other Skylum products. His tutorials are well laid out and he has a professional but easy going manner which really helps you learn quickly.

Scott Herder is another friend that does amazing work with hyperlapse and timelapse photography. His videos are straightforward and extremely helpful. His channel is just getting started but you can see that it has great potential. Scott was a former teacher here in South Korea and that really shows in his videos.

Kelby One is typically a pay to play site. However, since the end of March they have been hosting a series of webinars for free on their youtube channel. Theses are hosted by Scott Kelby and a host of other top-notch photographers in the industry.

Postie Adventures is a great new channel started by my friend Brent Mail in Australia. He converted a old “postie bike” as they call them in the land down under and now is touring around interviewing creative and interesting people.


One of the things that I have a lot of are photography ebooks. A few years ago, you got these pretty much everywhere. Sadly, many people read a couple pages and now they just take up space on their hard drives. Regardless or what you may think, they are still a great resource for learning different photography concepts.

Rocky Nook has over 250 titles to choose from. Not the cheapest by any stretch of the imagination but a good resource nonetheless. If you are looking for well-written and well designed ebooks on pretty much every camera or photographic style, you will probably find it here.

Craft & Vision is a great shop for moderately priced ebooks and I must admit that I have a lot of their books as I really like David DuChemin’s writing and advice.


5DayDeal – They have some great free or deeply reduced items over at their shop. These are anything from presets to ebooks. There is a lot of great stuff for the photographer stuck at home.

The Photo BootCamp Academy – They are offering a 30 day stay-at-home trial of their training right now. This is a great opportunity to test out this style of course and community. This is a very special offer to get you hooked on Brent’s upbeat style of teaching and all of his years of experience.

Creative Academy – Pete DeMarco is offering a 2-month access to his amazing community for just $1. This community offers access to live expert workshops every 2 weeks, a tight knit group of dedicated photographers and amazing instruction on different styles of landscape photography. Pete offers a complete roadmap of tutorials to improve your landscape photography and direct access to his years of expertise.

Digital Photo Mentor – This is another great site that is offering a deal right now on a beginner photography course. Their 4 Weeks to Better Photography is on sale right now for only $9. This is a great course if you are looking for some solid instruction when you are just starting out.

FStoppers – If you are one of the lucky people that still has any money, FStoppers has a deal going on that makes their courses a little more affordable. However, if you are like me then these are still way out of your price range but there are some good courses there.


A Beautiful Anarchy Podcast – This is a great podcast to sit down and get a better grasp on many aspects of life, creativity and everything else outside of which monster camera Canon will produce next.

The Traveling Image Makers – I was recently on this podcast and it is a great way to get to know some of your favourite photographers and see what really makes them tick. The host Ugo Cei is amazing and also an inspiring photographer as well.

Photo Taco – I must admit that I only started listening to this podcast because of the name. However, it has some really good episodes. Jeff Harmon really talks about some great topics and not too geeky.

The Photofocus Podcast – This is a great one for the business side of photography. There is a lot of information packed into these episodes and it has some really good advice.

The PetaPixel Podcast – If you are into general photography shoptalk about what new cameras are coming out and whatnot, this is one of the better podcasts out there.

The Unfiltered Photography Podcast – Brandon van Son is an energetic photographer and is quite down to earth. This podcast is a sporativally updated one but it is a great one to sort of chill and listen to his thoughts. He touches on a little bit of everything from business to instagram.

The Chase Jarvis LIVE Show – This is basically the podcast for creatives. I mean that it is not exactly directly aimed at photographers and it revolves around the “creative lifestyle” and whatnot. Chase interviews some of the top names in the industry.

If you want more choices check out this page (where I stole some links from).

BONUS: This has nothing to do with photography but it is a great podcast: LeVar Burton Reads. Seriously, just give it a listen and you can thank me later.

The bottom line here is that you can and should use this time to sharpen your skill set and develop yourself as a photographer. Some of these things will cost a bit a money but they are certainly cheaper than buying a new lens or body. I am sure that if you actively study from some of these resources, you WILL improve your photographic skill.

The post Photography Resources For The COVID-19 Outbreak appeared first on The Sajin.

BGN Eye Hospital 20th anniversary

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BGN Eye Hospital 20th anniversary

2020 is a special year for BGN Eye Care Group, we celebrate our 20th anniversary and are proud to provide reliable and affordable eye service for local patients, expats and Korea guests.

To introduce BGN in more details we would like to answer some common questions about BGN Eye Hospital, our vision, services provided and why BGN Eye Hospital should be your best choice for Eye Care provider in Busan.


What is special about BGN Eye Hospital?

First of all, we have 20 years of experience and know-how for laser vision correction and cataract surgeries. For the last 20 years we successfully performed over 350,000 surgeries and are among the leading hospitals in Korea.

The second thing we are proud of is that our highly professional doctors will always recommend the best customized surgery. We deal with many complicated cases that other clinics cannot do. But at the same time if the patient does not need treatment, or some kind of treatment is not the best option for him, we will never recommend a surgery or procedure. Patient`s health and satisfaction are always our main priorities.

And finally we should mention reliability. We are the hospital you can trust. We cannot guarantee that there will be no secondary vision decrease after laser vision correction surgery, but we can guarantee that if you get into this small percent of patients (2-5%), who may have secondary vision decrease, than on condition patient has enough of the corneal tissue left after surgery, secondary surgery is guaranteed to be done by hospital free of charge.

Are all patients candidate for laser vision correction?

No, not all, but a vast majority of patients with myopia, astigmatism or hyperopia can have one of Laser Vision Correction Surgeries (LASEK,LASIK, ReLEx SMILE). Still, there is a small amount of patients that may not be candidates for procedure due to thin cornea, irregular corneal form etc.

This is exactly why we provide free LASIK examination and consultation to check if each particular patient is a good candidate for vision correction or not.

What kind of Laser Vision Correction has least side effects and is considered to be the safest?

BGN Eye Hospital recommends customized Laser Vision Correction, so there is no common solution for all of patients. But on condition, that after in-depth examination, patient is a candidate for all kinds of surgeries, ReLEx SMILE surgery may be a good choice, as the recovery process is the fastest available currently among the laser vision correction surgeries and BGN SMILE guarantees the least damage of the cornea with only 1,7 mm micro- incision.

Currently BGN Eye Hospital is providing free examination and consultation for everyone, who would like to get rid of glasses or contact lenses. Feel free to contact us for free consultation and booking an appointment. You can refer to our Facebook page to learn more about our latest promotions or contact us for consultation at 010-7670-3995 or kakao: eye1004bgnbusan



How to learn konglish words

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Konglish words

 If the meaning of a word or phrase differs from its original (English)meaning then they are called Konglish words. Though most of them are English words few of them are borrowed from another language also.

Words that are borrowed from English or other languages are called Konglish words. They are mainly borrowed from English. It is believed that South Koreans started to use Konglish after second world war. Koreans started to use Konglish on (1910 -1945) when Korea was a Japanese colony.


If you want to learn more konglish words visit this site

Korean TermKonglish pronounceEnglish pronounce
미팅mithingblind date


입니까 meaning

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In a formal setting like a job interview, and when you talk with someone formally we have to use 입니다, 입니까?

In a statement, you can use ‘입니다

In a question sentence, you can use ‘입니까?’

In a negative sentence, you can use ‘이/가아닙니다.’

입니다 means to be.입니까 is an interrogative form & used to make questions.입니다 입니까 are used after a noun and are used in formal conditions like in Newspaper/ TV News.


Informal situationFormal situation
N이/가 아니에요N이가 아닙니다


입니까 meaning

은/는 이/가 grammar

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은 는 – Topic markers or topic marking particles

이 가 – Subject markers or subject marking particles

은 는 indicates the topic of the sentence and 이 가 indicates the subject of the sentence. The grammatical subject is related to 이 가. The fun fact is many native speakers frequently omit these particles in daily conversation

If the word ends with consonants we use 은 or 이
이것은, 이것이 – This is
저것은, 저것이 – That is

If the word ends with vowels we use 는 or 가.
저는, 제가 – (I’m) formal

나는, 내가 – (I’m) informal

When to use 은 는

In simple sentence

It is used after a noun that ends in consonants.

It is used after a noun that ends in vowels.
Do you want to know more on 은/는 이/가 grammar then visit this post.

Nothing's Really Real Podcast: (Ep 73) Open Mic

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This is truly a special episode. It’s an open mic podcast! Due to the state of the world, I’ve used the power of the internet to gather an awesome collage of artists whom have done time here in Busan - to share their work, using this episode as the stage. This show is really a fine example of the talent we’ve got throughout our community, musicians, poets, comedians, writers and more. It really feels like a classic Saturday night in Busan.

Tune in to hear the works of Kenneth May, Nick Hemsley, The Bathing Belles, Chris Tharp and Jason Maniccia, Steve Feldman, Julia Rapp, Rob the Universe, Brian Aylward, Mr. Winkles, Amy Rose, Franklin Bongo, Caitlin Celic, Big Paper, Ryan Estrada, Noah Saunders and Mark Zink. 

Most artists have at one time made appearances before on this show, but if not - they have made meaningful appearances in my life. Thank you to all of the artists, and thank you to the listeners.
As always, if you enjoy the show, tell a friend about it, and please leave a review on iTunes or whatever app you listen to podcasts on. I’d really appreciate it!

The cat, kitten and the dog

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Its been an interesting few weeks at home, lockdown and all, but more so due to the pets at home. So, first of all, a fawn labrador retriever has become an important member of our family. He'll be 4 on April 10th. He's awesome- he understands every word we say or don't say. More about this sweet guy in a later post. But the hullabaloo a few days back was because we had an interesting guest at home. The stray cat who thinks she owns us and our home brought her little kitten who hadn't even opened her eyes! After an exciting photo session, she disappeared. Yet again.

Then yesterday she reappears but without her kitty. But she wouldn't stop meowing. We discover that the kitty has somehow lodged herself inside a tiny rectangular hole in the car!! Dh, quick and dextrous with hands was able to pull her out of the hole in the car. Again, after the mandatory photo op, she was showing off her baby when the mother-of-all-tests arrived. Dhrish, our lab, made an extensive check over the situation through a thorough sniffing test to the new attraction. The kitty passed and we have a consensus at home now. The cat, kitten and the dog are happy together.

Dh has kindly named the kitten. Mitten when she's still a kitten, Mat when she is a cat!

My takeaway from The Book Thief

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The Book Thief by Markus Zusak

Death is a great equalizer.

And when Death decides to narrate a story, not about a jewel thief (which is exciting and which would feed Him well) or a bread thief (which is heartbreaking but which will undoubtedly satiate Him) but a Book Thief, you kind of wonder why.

Is it because she's an innocent little 10year old girl? Is it because of her indelible encounter with Death so early in her tender life? Is it because of her selfless actions that help people around her cope up with the copious amounts of death and destruction around? Is Death in love with words himself that he finds The Book Thief interesting and exciting? Are the solid characters who tempt and tantalize The Book Thief an inspiration for Death? Maybe all of it. I think.

Set in a WWII era in Nazi Germany, the story unfolds the hardships and suffering endured by the Germans themselves as they toil and sweat through the drudgery of war. Though the story is set in melancholic times, it does have a fair bit of fun under the cloudy grey skies, a bit of romance with a person and a thing, a little heist planned and executed, and a lot of pain-killing words in books. A thriller under the Nazi flag under the stairs, unusual bonds from unusual places, strong, dependable unconditional love and a great many insults in German carelessly strewn about add up to make it a breezy read! 

The words were loaded, interesting and metaphorical making it thought-provoking and reflective. I went through periods of gloom and despair along with feelings of optimism and rejuvenation of faith for the human race falling into the depths of this book. But I loved that this was my first read on WWII! I would cool off with a lighter, sweeter Gerald Durrell next though :)

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