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Convince your boss

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Here is a template that you can use to convince your boss to support your professional development as a teacher.


Dear _____________,

 

Would you like me to improve as a teacher? Could you take a look at this new course by ESLinsider?

It's called TEKA.

It's a specialized course focused on how to teach English (especially to children). It's an interactive online course that has 18 topics, 60+ how-to videos (where I can learn by watching other teachers), and get feedback from the teacher trainer on assignments. The teacher said that he can even use our student books for those assignments.

This course would help me create lessons that are fun, interesting and engaging for students. Everything is learn-at-your-own-pace, so I can participate on my own schedule while still keeping up at work.

Here are some reviews by other teachers who have taken this course. One person said he saw a "massive improvement" in his student's behavior and that his students liked the activities a lot.

The cost is $299. Would your company be willing to reimburse me for this training?

Their website is here:

https://www.course.eslinsider.com/

This could be the professional development that I need to teach children and at the end they offer a certificate of completion that I could share with you.

Looking forward to your decision,

(Your name)

 


 
Things You Probably Didn't Know About Teaching English In Asia, But Should Know


Telling Time in Korean

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Interested in learning the Korean language and want to learn all about telling time in Korean? You came to the right place!

In this lesson, we’ll give you the essential Korean vocabulary and Korean phrases you need so you’ll never miss another appointment. If you’d like to know how to say “time” in Korean, that’s a separate blog post. In this, you’ll learn how to tell the time in Korean.

Much of this article will use the Korean Hangeul (한글) so if you can’t read it yet you can reference the romanization. But we highly recommend you learn the Korean alphabet ASAP.

Can't read Korean yet? Click here to learn for free in about 60 minutes!

Let’s not waste any more time and start!

Businessman running worried with a huge clock in the background

Getting started with numbers

In order to tell time in Korean, you need to know a bit about numbers in Korean. Korean has two number systems, and both are used when talking about time. We have a great blog post all about Korean numbers so study up on that if you’re interested.

For now, you can reference this chart:

NumeralNative Korean (Korea System)Sino-Korean (China System)
1하나 (hana)
2둘 (dul)
3셋 (set)
4넷 (net)
5다섯 (daseot)
6여섯 (yeoseot)
7일곱 (ilgop)
8여덟 (yeodeol)
9아홉 (ahop)
10열 (yeol)
11열하나 (yeolhana)십일 (sibil)
12열둘 (yeoldul)십이 (sibi)
13십삼 (sipsam)
14십사 (sipsa)
15십오 (sibo)
16십육 (sibyuk)
17십칠 (sipchil)
18십팔 (sip-pal)
19십구 (sipgu)
20이십 (isip)
30삼십 (samsip)
40사십 (sasip)
50오십 (osip)
60육십 (yuksip)

In brief, the numbers on the left (Korea system) are used for hours, and the numbers on the right (China system) are used for minutes.

Just know that to say a number from the China system greater than 20, just use 이십 (20/ isip), 삼십 (30/ samsip), etc. + the number below 10. So 22 is 이십이 (isipi), 35 is 삼십사 (samsipsa) and so on.

We cover this more in-depth in our lesson on numbers (link to blog post above chart).

Using Hours

When talking about the hour, you use the word 시 (si) or 시간 (sigan). Remember you use a number from the 하나, 둘, 셋 (hana, dul, set) number system when using hours.

시 (si) is used specifically for telling time (4 o’clock = 4시), whereas 시간 (sigan) is for an amount of time (4 hours = 4시간 ).

Example:

2 o’clock = 두시 (dusi)

5 o’clock = 다섯시 (daseotsi)

Using Minutes

If you are talking about minutes then you use the word 분 (bun). You should use a number from the 일, 이, 삼 (il, i, sam) number system when using minutes.

Unlike hours, 분 (bun) is used both for telling time and indicating amount of time.

Example:

33 minutes = 삼십사분 (samsipsabun)

42 minutes = 사십이분 (sasipibun)

Telling Time in Korean

Now that we’ve covered our Korean numbers and know how to say hours (시 / si) and minutes (분 / bun) we can put them all together. A few things to know before diving further in though. Korean also has words for “half past” (ie. 4:30), which is 반 (ban).

Example:

4:30 = 네시반 (naesiban)

Also, Korean words usually have spaces in between them. However, with hours and minutes in time, there’s no space. So while you may see 2 o’clock written as 두시 (dusi) and 두 시 (du si), the first one, 두시 (dusi), is the correct form.

So with that out of the way, we can start practicing! Do you know how you would say 2:33?

2:33 = 두시 삼십사분 (dusi samsipsabun)

Great! How about 5:42?

5:42 = 다섯시 사십이분 (daseotsi sasipibun)

You can practice this a bit yourself, there’s a bit more we need to know about telling time in Korean before we can say we’ve mastered this though.

12hr clock or 24hr clock?

You may be aware of the two different ways of reading time, the 12hr clock (AM, PM) and the 24hr clock usually used by the military (HH:mm). Korea uses both these systems in daily life, but in different situations.

A vast majority of the time you’ll hear the 12hr clock used in spoken Korean. However, you may encounter the 24hr clock when you see the time written like in timetables at the airport or with tv schedules. In the 24hr form, it’s often the number+시.

Example:

14:35 = 십사시 삼십오분 (sipsasi samsipobun)

Notice a difference here? In the 24hr form, it’s read using only the China system numbers. But while those in the Korean military or officials would read it as above, you’ll very rarely encounter it spoken this way by average Koreans.

In almost all other situations, even where it’s written in the 24hr form, people would still say it in the 12hr form. So most people would read the above time as 두시 삼십오분 (dusi samsipobun), and you should as well.

But how to disinguish between AM and PM? We’ll get to that now.

AM and PM

The Korean vocabulary for AM is 오전 (ojeon). You would use this to describe the morning hours.

The Korean vocabulary for PM is 오후 (ohu). You would use this to describe the afternoon and evening hours.

However, unlike in most places in the world, these are placed at the beginning of the time, instead of at the end.

Example:

2:13 AM = 오전 두시 십삼분 (ojeon dusi sipsambun)

7:30 PM = 오후 일곱시 삼십분 (ohu ilgopsi samsipbun) or 오후 일곱시 반 (ohu ilgopsi ban)

You may on occasion see AM and PM put at the end of the time, but for the most part you’ll want to say that first when saying the time out loud. Also, if the situation makes it clear that it’s referring to morning or evening then you can omit saying it entirely.

If that’s all clear, let’s recap on our vocabulary and learn some Korean phrases you can start using in conversation!

Essential Vocabulary

Hours – 시 (si)

Minutes – 분 (bun)

AM – 오전 (ojeon)

PM – 오후 (ohu)

Half past – 반 (ban)

Korean Sample Sentences

Here we’ll give you some common Korean phrases at different levels of politeness so you can be ready every time.

Formal Korean

You should use this Korean in a professional environment or with those who are older than you and you are not close with.

1. 오후 다섯시 삼십분 비행기입니다. 잊지 마십시오. → Your flight is leaving at 17:30. Please don’t be late.

ohu daseotsi samsipbun bihaenggiimnida. itji masipsio

2. 서울행 버스는 15분 지연되어 오전 여덟시 사십오분에 출발 예정입니다. → The next bus to Seoul will be 15 minutes late and will now depart at 8:45 AM.

seoulhaeng beoseuneun 15bun jiyeondoeeo ojeon yeodeolsi sasibobune chulbal yejeongimnida

Standard Korean

You can use these sentences in just about every situation, they’re considered polite.

1. 지금 몇 예요? → What is the time now?

jigeum myeot siyeyo?

2. 지금 오전 아홉시예요. → It’s 9 AM now.

jigeum ahopsiyeyo.

3. 우리 몇 에 만날까요? → What time should we meet?

uri myeot sie mannalkkayo?

4. 오후 두시반에 만나요. → Let’s meet at 2:30 PM.

ohu dusibane mannayo

Informal Korean Sample Sentences

This style of speaking is used with friends, family, or others that you’re close with.

1. 몇 영화야? → What time is the movie?

myeot si yeonghwaya?

2. 여섯시 십분에 시작해. → It starts at 6:10.

yeoseotsi sipbune sijakae


Now you'll never have to worry about losing track of time in Korean.

If you have any questions about the content of this lesson, feel free to contact us via email or leave a comment below. And check out our other posts all geared to help you learn Korean!

The post Telling Time in Korean appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.


Learn to read Korean and be having simple conversations, taking taxis and ordering in Korean within a week with our FREE Hangeul Hacks series: http://www.90DayKorean.com/learn

Korean lessons   *  Korean Phrases    *    Korean Vocabulary *   Learn Korean   *    Learn Korean alphabet   *   Learn Korean fast   *  Motivation    *   Study Korean  

 


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Military Service in Korea

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If you have any male Korean friends, you may already know that military service in South Korea is mandatory for them. Perhaps some of your favorite male idols have also completed their mandatory military service periods. They often say they don’t like talking about it, but you’ll hear them talk about it a lot anyway as it’s a big part of all young Korean men’s lives.

While military service is not mandatory for women, South Korea does allow them to enlist. But what exactly does the South Korean military service entail? Let’s take a look at it now!

4 soldiers saluting in front of the Korean flag

 

Can't read Korean yet? Click here to learn for free in about 90 minutes!

Age of Enlistment

Once a Korean male turns 18 (Korean age), his compulsory service in the military comes into effect. However, they do not have to start their service immediately. It’s possible to delay the starting date until the age of 28.

Apart from famous idols and actors, who usually wait since it might negatively affect their careers, most Korean men complete their military service in the early 20s. Typically, they will first graduate high school and complete one or two years of university, and then start their military service. In rare cases, they will wait until they graduate from university before they start their military service.

Does Everyone Serve In Active Duty?

It’is expected that all men of good physical health serve in active duty, however it is possible to complete military service outside of active duty, such as with police duties. Also, those who are not in good health are allowed to complete their military service through non-active duty.

This could be through social work or other services for the government. Lastly, those with debilitating diseases, such as diabetes or other conditions, can be exempted from military service altogether.

Similar exemptions can also be granted to those with exceptional skills. For example, some violinists, pianists, and ballet performers can get exemptions from duty. Also, athletes who have won medals in the Olympics, or specifically a gold medal in the Asian Games, are exempted from active duty.

These individuals will instead complete the 4 weeks of basic military training, then they can continue their careers so long as they do so for 42 months. Once this period has finished, they’ll attend a few days of military training every year for the next six years, but that’s the extent of their service.

Son Heung Min, who plays for Tottenham Spurs, received exemption from active duty in 2018, after South Korea won gold in the Asian Games for football.

Objection to military service, for any reason, is not allowed and will lead to jail-time. Dual citizens must also choose one citizenship by their 18th birthday, and will not have to complete their military service if they revoke their Korean citizenship.

However, from that moment they will be regarded fully as foreigners by the Korean government. So many Koreans living abroad choose to keep their citizenship and return to Korea at some point in their 20s to complete their military service.

What Is The Length of Military Service?

How long one’s military service is will be depends on a number of factors. The branch of the military they’re in, active vs non-active duty, all play a role. While the service time period for the Army and Marines is 21 months, the Navy is 23 months, and the Air Force is 24.

As for non-active duty, it’s 24 months for those in social work or international cooperation, 34 months for industrial technical personnel, and 36 months for those completing their service as doctors, lawyers, veterinarians, or expert researchers.

The length of military service in South Korea is long, and is in fact among the top 4 in the world in this regard. It only falls behind North Korea (where it’s compulsory for both women and men, with the lengthiest service time in the world), Israel (where it’s compulsory for women for 24 months and men for 32 months), and Singapore (compulsory for men for 24 months).

While there have been discussions regarding shortening the military service period, because of relations with North Korea, there are no immediate plans for this.

Controversies Surrounding Military Service

Over the years, especially since the early 2000s, there have been a few controversies surrounding Korean military service. Usually these controversies and scandals have been directed towards Korean celebrities.

While they are not exempted from active duty altogether, there used to be a specific, easier, military branch in which they could perform their service. However, as issues continued with celebrities even in this branch, as well as outrage from the general population who did not agree with celebrities getting preferential treatment, this branch has since been dissolved.

However, this has just lead into controversies of exemptions for athletes from performing active duty. Some are outraged that athletes will get an exemption but actors and singers won’t, while others are pushing towards abandoning the idea of exemption altogether. Meaning that all celebrities and athletes would complete their active military service just like all other Korean man.

The debate of mandatory military service will also likely continue for the foreseeable future. Perhaps until there is some kind of change in how it’s implemented, or until relations between the two Koreas changes.


What do you think about military service in Korea? Should celebrities and athletes receive preferential treatment compared to the general public? What laws surrounding the military does your country have? Let us know in the comments below!

The post Military Service in Korea appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.


DATAFL - What sorts of English teachers do you think schools are looking for? Data from thousands of job ads (in Asia) reveals the facts

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I wrote about this previously in an older blog post, but I decided to update it and make it a little more visually appealing by adding some graphs to the information.

what employers (ESL schools) in Asia want

I looked on various sites in Taiwan, Korea, China and Japan at the job advertisements for English teachers and the keywords they were using and came up with this.

You can download it here.

 


TEFLies

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TEFLies1

This is what the education TEFL course industry is like: lies, half-truths and other tactics to get you to buy and not really teach you anything useful at all

This applies to TEFL, TESOL, and even CELTA to some extent.

About 80% of this was previously written as blog posts on this site. I also added a bit and updated it. It's mostly about TEFL courses, but it's also about education.

Some of the topics include:

  • lies about requirements
  • accreditation
  • affiliates
  • reviews
  • the 120 hour lie
  • grammar/theory
  • "internationally recognized" courses
  • beaches

Download


Nothing's Really Real Podcast: (Ep 65) Steve Feldman w/ Sam Hazelton

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Steve Feldman and Sam Hazelton join me for this episode. Steve has been doing stand-up comedy with The Ha-Ha Hole for many years, and Sam just got out of jail. Join us as we discuss our own personal physical grotesqueries, how I can’t read Korean, learning to dance and helping people in danger. Steve talks about losing his father to Alzheimer’s and why he is rude to Korean restaurant servers. We talk about the phenomenon that was late night DVD sales, like Girls Gone Wild and Bumfights, I defend Logan Paul, and Steve tells us the mystery of the mixed up birth certificates. 
 
Steve and I share Memory of Regret stories, and we talk about some of our worst comedic bombs on stage.
 
If you enjoy the show, tell a friend about it, and please leave a review on iTunes or whatever app you listen to podcasts on. I’d really appreciate it!

Trump’s August was so Outlandish and Awful that He is Unfit to Remain President

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Image result for backdraft burn it all

This is a local re-post of my monthly essay for the Lowy Institute for September.

In brief, I argue that Trump crossed a rubicon in August. He is now clearly unfit to be president. His behavior in August was so unhinged and inappropriate, that a 25th Amendment removal is now warranted. A white collar professional in any similar position of institutional authority – at a bank, school, hospital, military or government agency, etc. – would be removed for Trump’s August meltdown. So should Trump.

This will not happen of course. Republicans in Trump’s cabinet and in Congress clearly know he is unfit. Leaks like Rex Tillerson’s “he’s a f* moron” are common. But Trump voters’ bond to Trump is akin to a personality cult and they actually seem to approve of the chaos he has unleashed. So Washington Republicans won’t act. But still it is worth noting that they should. And why Trump voters have endorsed ‘burn it all’ is just beyond me. An ideological preference for Trump – however toxic and racist – is at least understandable. But what is the value is simply wrecking American governance?

So not only should the president probably be impeached for the obstruction findings of the Mueller Report, he should also be removed via the 25th Amendment for psychological unfitness. Never thought I’d that sentence. Wow.

The full essay follows the jump.

 

If the President Donald Trump’s behavior in August did not drive away his voters and open discussion of the Constitution’s 25th Amendment fitness clause, what will?

Surely one of the great questions to emerge from the Trump presidency is the stubborn persistence of his low 40s% approval rating. No matter what Trump does or says, this number rarely falls for long. It has occasionally slipped as low as the mid-30s, and less often bounced up to the mid-40s. But these rises and falls do not stick.

As Trump has jettisoned his more professional staff – the so-called ‘adults in the room,’ such as former Secretary of Defense James Mattis or former Chief of Staff John Kelly – his behavior has become more outlandish. Yet if anything his polling in the current ‘let Trump be Trump’ period has been slight higher than before. Trump in 2019 has generally stayed above 40%. On the flip-side, no amount of Trumpian boasting about the economy – some of it deserved – has pulled his numbers up.

Trump’s low-40s average is remarkable dogged. Usually it is observed that such a number bodes ill for Trump’s re-election. It is hard to see even an Electoral College route to victory if Trump cannot at least hit 45% approval. But Trump’s approval immobility also raises the question what might finally make his numbers decline. Indeed, this strikes me as the most interesting question, because Trump’s behavior would have sank any other president long ago.

Trump famously said that he could shoot someone on Fifth Avenue and his voters would not abandon him. This past August really put that notion to the test. Trump’s behavior was so manic and bizarre, that his fitness to serve became a widely discussed issue (good examples: here, here, here, here, here). Others argued that Trump has always been like this, so August was nothing new. My own sense is that yes, Trump did cross some kind of psychological unfitness rubicon in August – consequently raising the specter of the 25th Amendment – because there was just so much bonkers commentary so rapidly.

To briefly review, in August Trump

– told four non-white US congresswoman to go back where they came from. (Only one was an immigrant.) This comment was so over-the-top that it seems to have broken the dam on openly calling Trump a racist in the mainstream media.

– posed with an orphaned infant of a mass shooting with large smile and thumbs-up. This was the most ghoulish moment in Trump’s presidency.

analogized the chairman of the US Federal Reserve as an opponent to the US on par with the leader of China.

– relentlessly pursued the purchase of Greenland from Denmark in the face of widespread global mockery and the open rejection of both the Greenlandic and Danish governments.

– accused American Jews who vote for the Democratic Party of being traitors.

– called himself the ‘Chosen One.’

– suggested dropping nuclear weapons on hurricanes, an idea so dangerous that the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a webpage specifically to de-bunk it

– called himself the ‘king of Israel’ and the ‘second coming of God.’

– continued to ‘joke’ about staying in office beyond his term.

There are three ways to interpret these kinds of comments. First, strategically: Trump may be lying and exaggerating as a loyalty test. This is common in cults of personality like North Korea or Jonestown. The great man – and it is almost always a man – gins up enormous lies and those retainers who nonetheless recycle them are identifiable as the most loyal and servile. This is the argument that Trump is playing ‘three-dimensional chess’ and actually brilliantly manipulating us all. Yet Trump’s government is so shambolic and Trump himself so sloppy and poorly prepared for almost every initiative of his administration, that it is hard to believe.

Second, pathological: Trump lies, exaggerates, and provokes because he enjoys it and/or is addicted to the thrill it gives him. Trump has been lying for so long about his career, his wealth, his real estate empire, his sexual behavior, and now, in the White House, about policy too, that it now may simply be second nature. Perhaps the best evidence of that is the Trump often lies unnecessarily, just for fun it seems or because he just can’t help himself.

Third, psychological: Trump actually believes what he is saying, so he is not actually lying in his own mind. This is the most frightening possibility. It means Trump is building a fantasy world on Twitter, and his voters, by extension, believe in this alternate reality. In this world, former President Barack Obama is a Muslim, Senator Ted Cruz’ father tried to kill President John Kennedy, and the Clintons were involved in the recent death of Jeffrey Epstein.

As explanations for Trump’s irreducible approval rating, all are quite disturbing. The first suggests Trump voters have fallen for a personality cult, where they lie along with the president to belong to a group, to ‘own the libs,’ and so on. The second suggests they have abjured responsible governance. Trump lies and provokes unnecessarily, but administrative chaos is the point? The third possibility suggests that Trump’s fantasy world is something they too believe in, or so desperately want to believe in, that they let themselves be pulled along.

But these explanations still leave open the core question of whether Trump might one day go too far. These three arguments, reinforcing each other, create a distinct Trump-Fox bubble, but it has never been clear what, if any, comment Trump might make that finally cracks that 40+% and spark an inquiry into a 25th Amendment removal. Trump will not shoot someone in public, but what if he were to defend the core institution of white supremacy in US history, slavery? What if he spoke approvingly of fascism? His liberal critics already accuse him of that routinely.

August 2019, I believe, will go down in history of Trump’s first term as the moment when his unfitness for the office became manifest and undeniable. Much as ‘send her back’ ended the media’s strained effort to not directly call Trump a racist, so will the sheer volume of outlandish unpresidential remarks from last month be a rubicon on the fitness issue. It is now quite obvious that Trump is unwell and overwhelmed by the office. The 25th Amendment solution to Trump’s presidency should be entertained. As many observers have noted, had any other white collar professional in a position of authority talked like Trump did last month, s/he would almost certainly be removed or investigated – in a bank, company, government agency, university, or other coordinated bureaucracy.

Trump will not of course be removed by the 25th Amendment, because the Republicans around him fear the voter backlash of that stubborn approval rating. That is why the question looms so large: just how far would Trump have to go that his base would crack? He has certainly gone farther than anyone ever expected.


Robert E Kelly
Assistant Professor
Department of Political Science & Diplomacy
Pusan National University

@Robert_E_Kelly

 

 


How To Say ‘Pop’ In Korean

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What kind of music do you like the most out of all the genres that exist in the world? Perhaps ‘pop’ is your favorite genre? Whether you love K-pop or not, we’ll give you this fun and easy lesson for how to say ‘pop’ in Korean!

Pop singer in a concert pointing up

‘Pop’ in Korean

The word for ‘pop’ in Korean is 팝 (pab).

팝 (pab)

pop

That’s right, it’s entirely a Konglish word. It’s written and pronounced the same as the English word it is loaned from.

Generally speaking the word 팝 is all you need to know, as that is what many Koreans, especially the younger generations, use to refer to the music genre.

If you want to make it clearer, you can add the word 뮤직 (myujik), which means ‘music’, after the word 팝. So essentially, you construct it as 팝 뮤직 (pab myujik). Pretty easy right? But be sure to say it using Korean pronunciation though, so you’re better understood.

To refer to the Korean genre of pop everyone knows and loves, K-pop, you should say 한국팝 (hangukpab). 한국 being the Korean word for how to say ‘Korea’.

Can't read Korean yet? Click here to learn for free in about 90 minutes!

Related Vocabulary

(rok) – rock

(sol) – soul

힙합 (hibhab) – hip hop

(raeb) – rap

클래식 (keullaesik) – classic

고전 음악 (gojeon eumak) – classical music

대중 음악 (daejung eumak) – popular music

대중 가요 (daejung gayo) – popular song

대중 문화 (daejung munhwa) – pop culture

팝컬처 (pabkeolcheo) – pop culture

 

A word of caution about Romanization

While it is possible for you to study the words in this article simply by reading their romanized versions, it will come in handy for you to be able to read Hangeul if you ever wish to come to Korea. Hangeul is the Korean alphabet, and not difficult to learn. In fact, you can learn it in just 90 minutes.

After you’ve familiarized yourself with Hangeul, life in Korea will suddenly seem so much easier and the country won’t appear so foreign for you. So, if you’re serious about learning Korean, why not learn Hangeul today?

 

Sample Sentences

Standard:

1. 한국 들어본적 있나요? → Have you ever heard any Korean pop?

   hangukpap deureobonjeok innayo?

 

2. 혹시 저랑 같이 이 콘서트를 다닐래요? → Would you perhaps like to attend this pop concert together with me?

   hoksi jeorang gachi i pap konseoteureul danillaeyo?


Informal:

1. 세계적 인기 많은 가수들 중에서 누구를 제일 좋아해? → Which artist of worldwide fame do you like the most?

   egyejeok ingi maneun pap gasudeul jungeseo nugureul jeil joahae?

 

2. 내 생각에는 비틀즈가 세계의 중에서 최고의 그룹이었어. → In my opinion, The Beatles was the best pop group in the world. 

   nae saenggageneun biteuljeuga segyeui jungeseo choegoui papgeurubieosseo.

 

Want more Korean phrases? Click here for a complete list!

The post How To Say ‘Pop’ In Korean appeared first on 90 Day Korean®.


Back in the

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Back in the 1980s David McCann, now a professor of linguistics at Harvard University began his studies into the Korean Sijo poetic form.  While similar to a haiku, a sijo poem is slightly more complicated. In his article found here on JSTOR, he outlines the structure in full.

The Structure of the Korean Sijo by David R.McCann


About the Author

Matthew William Thivierge has abandoned his PhD studies in Shakespeare and is now currently almost half-way through becoming a tea-master (Japanese,Korean & Chinese tea ceremony). He is a part time Ninjologist with some Jagaek studies (Korean 'ninja') and on occasion views the carrying on of pirates from his balcony mounted telescope.

Blogs
About Tea Busan  *   Mr.T's Chanoyu てさん 茶の湯   *  East Sea Scrolls  *  East Orient Steampunk Society


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